Abstract

We report the formation of thin anisotropic phase gratings in a nematic liquid-crystalline film by use of lateral (fringing) electric fields induced by transparent interdigitated electrodes. These gratings yield high diffraction efficiency (>30%) with a strong dependence on the readout beam incidence angle. In addition, the formation of a defect wall is observed that has a significant effect on the diffraction properties of the phase grating.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Kulick, S. Kowel, T. Leslie, R. Ciliax, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1914, 219 (1993).
  2. M. Landgraf, C. Eldering, S. Kowel, P. Brinkley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 134, 580 (1990).
  3. J. Prost, P. S. Pershan, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2298 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid Crystal, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), p. 135.
  5. G. Haas, H. Wohler, M. W. Fritsch, D. A. Mlynski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 198, 15 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Dammann, Optik 31, 95 (1970).
  7. Commercially available from EM Industries, Inc., Hawthorne, N.Y. 10532.
  8. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991), p. 13–16.

1993 (1)

J. Kulick, S. Kowel, T. Leslie, R. Ciliax, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1914, 219 (1993).

1991 (1)

G. Haas, H. Wohler, M. W. Fritsch, D. A. Mlynski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 198, 15 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Landgraf, C. Eldering, S. Kowel, P. Brinkley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 134, 580 (1990).

1976 (1)

J. Prost, P. S. Pershan, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2298 (1976).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

H. Dammann, Optik 31, 95 (1970).

Brinkley, P.

M. Landgraf, C. Eldering, S. Kowel, P. Brinkley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 134, 580 (1990).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid Crystal, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), p. 135.

Ciliax, R.

J. Kulick, S. Kowel, T. Leslie, R. Ciliax, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1914, 219 (1993).

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, Optik 31, 95 (1970).

Eldering, C.

M. Landgraf, C. Eldering, S. Kowel, P. Brinkley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 134, 580 (1990).

Fritsch, M. W.

G. Haas, H. Wohler, M. W. Fritsch, D. A. Mlynski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 198, 15 (1991).
[Crossref]

Haas, G.

G. Haas, H. Wohler, M. W. Fritsch, D. A. Mlynski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 198, 15 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kowel, S.

J. Kulick, S. Kowel, T. Leslie, R. Ciliax, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1914, 219 (1993).

M. Landgraf, C. Eldering, S. Kowel, P. Brinkley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 134, 580 (1990).

Kulick, J.

J. Kulick, S. Kowel, T. Leslie, R. Ciliax, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1914, 219 (1993).

Landgraf, M.

M. Landgraf, C. Eldering, S. Kowel, P. Brinkley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 134, 580 (1990).

Leslie, T.

J. Kulick, S. Kowel, T. Leslie, R. Ciliax, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1914, 219 (1993).

Mlynski, D. A.

G. Haas, H. Wohler, M. W. Fritsch, D. A. Mlynski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 198, 15 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pershan, P. S.

J. Prost, P. S. Pershan, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2298 (1976).
[Crossref]

Prost, J.

J. Prost, P. S. Pershan, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2298 (1976).
[Crossref]

Wohler, H.

G. Haas, H. Wohler, M. W. Fritsch, D. A. Mlynski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 198, 15 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991), p. 13–16.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Prost, P. S. Pershan, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2298 (1976).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

G. Haas, H. Wohler, M. W. Fritsch, D. A. Mlynski, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 198, 15 (1991).
[Crossref]

Optik (1)

H. Dammann, Optik 31, 95 (1970).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

J. Kulick, S. Kowel, T. Leslie, R. Ciliax, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1914, 219 (1993).

M. Landgraf, C. Eldering, S. Kowel, P. Brinkley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 134, 580 (1990).

Other (3)

S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid Crystal, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1992), p. 135.

Commercially available from EM Industries, Inc., Hawthorne, N.Y. 10532.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991), p. 13–16.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Deformation of a homeotropically aligned liquid-crystal film by an electric fringing field from interdigitated electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomicrograph of the phase-grating structure between cross polarizers. The thick lines are electrodes and the thin lines are defect walls.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of experimental results for the diffraction efficiency of the ±1 and ±2 orders at incident angles of 0° and 30° as a function of electrode voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effective refractive-index profile for a TM wave at incident angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of numerical results for the diffraction efficiency of the ±1 and ±2 orders at incident angles of 0° and 30° as a function of effective film thickness.

Equations (1)

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n eff 2 ( θ , x ) = n 2 n 2 n 2 sin [ θ LC + Ψ ( x ) ] + n 2 cos [ θ LC + Ψ ( x ) ] , n eff ( θ , x ) = n air sin θ sin θ LC ,

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