Abstract

We demonstrate that picosecond mode-locked laser-based degenerate four-wave mixing can be detected with good signal-to-noise ratios in an optically thin flame and that detailed turbulence statistics can be acquired by use of this technique. A regeneratively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser was tuned to the 42S1/2-42P1/2 transition in atomic potassium (which was doped into the flame) at 769.9 nm. Using the all-forward degenerate four-wave mixing geometry, we achieved signal-to-noise ratios of 70:1 without the use of a spatial filter. A sensitivity curve and a method for acquiring turbulence statistics are presented.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, Appl. Phys. B 57, 243 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, J.-W. J. Pieterse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Williams, D. S. Green, S. Sethuraman, R. N. Zare, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 9122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, T. Drier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1770 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, Science 257, 1894 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Mann, S. V. O’Leary, A. G. Astill, D. A. Greenhalgh, Appl. Phys. B 54, 271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

Abrams, R. L.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1983), Chap. 8, pp. 211–284.

Astill, A. G.

B. A. Mann, S. V. O’Leary, A. G. Astill, D. A. Greenhalgh, Appl. Phys. B 54, 271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, T. R.

Danehy, P. M.

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, Appl. Phys. B 57, 243 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drier, T.

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, T. Drier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1770 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Rakestraw, L. R. Thorne, T. Drier, in Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), p. 1901.

Ewart, P.

Farrow, R. L.

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, Appl. Phys. B 57, 243 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, Science 257, 1894 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, T. Drier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1770 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fayer, M. D.

Fourkas, J. T.

Friedman-Hill, E. J.

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, Appl. Phys. B 57, 243 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Green, D. S.

S. Williams, D. S. Green, S. Sethuraman, R. N. Zare, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 9122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

B. A. Mann, S. V. O’Leary, A. G. Astill, D. A. Greenhalgh, Appl. Phys. B 54, 271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kafka, J. D.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, J.-W. J. Pieterse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Lam, J. F.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1983), Chap. 8, pp. 211–284.

Liao, P. F.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1983), Chap. 8, pp. 211–284.

Lind, R. C.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1983), Chap. 8, pp. 211–284.

Lucht, R. P.

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, Appl. Phys. B 57, 243 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, I.

Mann, B. A.

B. A. Mann, S. V. O’Leary, A. G. Astill, D. A. Greenhalgh, Appl. Phys. B 54, 271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O’Leary, S. V.

B. A. Mann, S. V. O’Leary, A. G. Astill, D. A. Greenhalgh, Appl. Phys. B 54, 271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pieterse, J.-W. J.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, J.-W. J. Pieterse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, N. H.

N. H. Wrobel, N. H. Pratt, in Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1978), p. 957.

Rakestraw, D. J.

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, Science 257, 1894 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, T. Drier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1770 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Rakestraw, L. R. Thorne, T. Drier, in Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), p. 1901.

Sethuraman, S.

S. Williams, D. S. Green, S. Sethuraman, R. N. Zare, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 9122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Snowdon, P.

Steel, D. G.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1983), Chap. 8, pp. 211–284.

Thorne, L. R.

D. J. Rakestraw, L. R. Thorne, T. Drier, in Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), p. 1901.

Watts, M. L.

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, J.-W. J. Pieterse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williams, S.

S. Williams, D. S. Green, S. Sethuraman, R. N. Zare, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 9122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wrobel, N. H.

N. H. Wrobel, N. H. Pratt, in Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1978), p. 957.

Zare, R. N.

S. Williams, D. S. Green, S. Sethuraman, R. N. Zare, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 9122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

P. M. Danehy, E. J. Friedman-Hill, R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, Appl. Phys. B 57, 243 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Mann, S. V. O’Leary, A. G. Astill, D. A. Greenhalgh, Appl. Phys. B 54, 271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. D. Kafka, M. L. Watts, J.-W. J. Pieterse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Williams, D. S. Green, S. Sethuraman, R. N. Zare, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 9122 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, Science 257, 1894 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1983), Chap. 8, pp. 211–284.

D. J. Rakestraw, L. R. Thorne, T. Drier, in Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), p. 1901.

N. H. Wrobel, N. H. Pratt, in Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1978), p. 957.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the DFWM setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DFWM signal versus K-number density (N). The signal scales with N2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum for an acoustic forcing frequency of 50 Hz.

Metrics