Abstract

We present a photorefractive processor for audio-acoustic signal recognition based on the time-delay neural network model of Hopfield and Tank [in Neural Models of Plasticity, J. H. Byrne, ed. (Academic, New York, 1989), pp. 363–377]. We demonstrate the recognition of three words by programming the interconnection weights of the time-delay network.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Rabiner, B.-H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition, Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).
  2. A. Waibel, K. F. Lee, eds., Readings in Speech Recognition (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1990).
  3. D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. J. Hopfield, D. W. Tank, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39, 698 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Suga, in Dynamic Aspects of Neocortical Function, G. Edelman, E. Gall, W. Cowan eds. (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 315–373.
  6. G. Zhou, L. Bintz, D. Z. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 31, 1740 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Zhou, D. Z. Anderson, Opt. Lett. 18, 167 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Hermanns, C. Benkert, D. M. Lininger, D. Z. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 750 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Feinberg, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), p. 417.

1993

1992

A. Hermanns, C. Benkert, D. M. Lininger, D. Z. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 750 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhou, L. Bintz, D. Z. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 31, 1740 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. J. Hopfield, D. W. Tank, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39, 698 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. Z.

Benkert, C.

A. Hermanns, C. Benkert, D. M. Lininger, D. Z. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 750 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bintz, L.

Feinberg, J.

J. Feinberg, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), p. 417.

Hermanns, A.

A. Hermanns, C. Benkert, D. M. Lininger, D. Z. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 750 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hopfield, J. J.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. J. Hopfield, D. W. Tank, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39, 698 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juang, B.-H.

L. Rabiner, B.-H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition, Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).

Lininger, D. M.

A. Hermanns, C. Benkert, D. M. Lininger, D. Z. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 750 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rabiner, L.

L. Rabiner, B.-H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition, Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).

Suga, N.

N. Suga, in Dynamic Aspects of Neocortical Function, G. Edelman, E. Gall, W. Cowan eds. (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 315–373.

Tank, D. W.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. J. Hopfield, D. W. Tank, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39, 698 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unnikrishnan, K. P.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. J. Hopfield, D. W. Tank, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39, 698 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Hermanns, C. Benkert, D. M. Lininger, D. Z. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 750 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process.

K. P. Unnikrishnan, J. J. Hopfield, D. W. Tank, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 39, 698 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Feinberg, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), p. 417.

N. Suga, in Dynamic Aspects of Neocortical Function, G. Edelman, E. Gall, W. Cowan eds. (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 315–373.

L. Rabiner, B.-H. Juang, Fundamentals of Speech Recognition, Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).

A. Waibel, K. F. Lee, eds., Readings in Speech Recognition (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1990).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the time-delay neural network for signal recognition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for photorefractive time-delay network. P, polarizer; BS’s, beam splitters; L, lens; M’s, mirrors. The input acoustic signal is provided by the cassette player.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental result demonstrating the recognition of (a) chirps and (b) words.

Equations (2)

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E i = 0 τ max d τ u ( τ ) j = 1 n G i j ( τ ) S j ( t - τ ) .
u ( τ ) = exp ( - τ / τ c ) η I 1 ( 2 η Ω τ ) 2 η Ω τ ,

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