Abstract

A technique for fabricating optical waveguides in a lithium niobate crystal is studied experimentally. We fabricate straight and curved structures of refractive index as the optical waveguides in a volume of the photorefractive crystal by scanning a focused laser beam. The experimental results show that the structure of refractive-index distribution is complex yet imply guiding of light in the part of high refractive index within the fabricated structure.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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1992 (1)

1990 (3)

W. Zhang, J. Tanida, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1325 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, K. Itoh, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Appl. Opt. 29, 4790 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. S. Yu, X. Yang, D. A. Gregory, Opt. Commun. 88, 81 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

1969 (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[Crossref]

Gregory, D. A.

F. T. S. Yu, X. Yang, D. A. Gregory, Opt. Commun. 88, 81 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hori, T.

Ichioka, Y.

W. Zhang, J. Tanida, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1325 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, K. Itoh, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Appl. Opt. 29, 4790 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, M.

Itoh, K.

W. Zhang, J. Tanida, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1325 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, K. Itoh, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Appl. Opt. 29, 4790 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitayama, K.

Mukohzaka, N.

Psaltis, D.

Qiao, Y.

Suzuki, Y.

Tanida, J.

W. Zhang, J. Tanida, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1325 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, K. Itoh, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Appl. Opt. 29, 4790 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toyoda, H.

Yang, X.

F. T. S. Yu, X. Yang, D. A. Gregory, Opt. Commun. 88, 81 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yoshinaga, H.

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu, X. Yang, D. A. Gregory, Opt. Commun. 88, 81 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, J. Tanida, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1325 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, K. Itoh, J. Tanida, Y. Ichioka, Appl. Opt. 29, 4790 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Zhang, J. Tanida, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1325 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. T. S. Yu, X. Yang, D. A. Gregory, Opt. Commun. 88, 81 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system for fabricating and testing the photorefractive waveguides; P’s, polarizers; M’s, mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index distribution of waveguide structures: (a) a coarse two-dimensional map of the distribution in the plane perpendicular to the optical axis, (b) a detailed distribution along a line [the solid line in (a)] parallel to the c axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical intensity distribution on the rear face of the photorefractive crystal: (a) before and (b) after fabrication of the straight waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the fabrication process for the curved waveguides.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical intensity distribution on the rear face of the photorefractive crystal: (a) before and (b) after fabrication of the curved waveguides; (c) a simultaneous plot of these intensity distributions taken along the central line parallel to the c axis. The broken and solid curves indicate patterns taken before and after exposure, respectively.

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