Abstract

A multimode laser can instantaneously generate a carrier frequency of significantly wide band. The proposed systems, composed of a free-running multimode laser diode, an optical spectrometer, and a computing system for fast Fourier transformation, can easily provide the potential for ultrahigh resolution of the order of 10 μm without scanning frequencies as in frequency-domain reflectometers of either the continuously or the stepwise-swept variety.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. K. Barnoski, S. M. Jensen, Appl. Opt. 15, 2110 (1976).
  2. K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Uchida, J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1603 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 21, 434 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Hotate, O. Kamatani, Electron. Lett. 25, 1503 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Iizuka, Imai, A. P. Freundorfer, R. James, R. Wong, S. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 932 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. de Groot, Appl. Opt. 32, 4193 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

K. Iizuka, Imai, A. P. Freundorfer, R. James, R. Wong, S. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 932 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Hotate, O. Kamatani, Electron. Lett. 25, 1503 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 21, 434 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. K. Barnoski, S. M. Jensen, Appl. Opt. 15, 2110 (1976).

Barnoski, M. K.

M. K. Barnoski, S. M. Jensen, Appl. Opt. 15, 2110 (1976).

de Groot, P.

Freundorfer, A. P.

K. Iizuka, Imai, A. P. Freundorfer, R. James, R. Wong, S. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 932 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, S.

K. Iizuka, Imai, A. P. Freundorfer, R. James, R. Wong, S. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 932 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hotate, K.

K. Hotate, O. Kamatani, Electron. Lett. 25, 1503 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, K.

K. Iizuka, Imai, A. P. Freundorfer, R. James, R. Wong, S. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 932 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Imai,

K. Iizuka, Imai, A. P. Freundorfer, R. James, R. Wong, S. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 932 (1990).
[CrossRef]

James, R.

K. Iizuka, Imai, A. P. Freundorfer, R. James, R. Wong, S. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 932 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, S. M.

M. K. Barnoski, S. M. Jensen, Appl. Opt. 15, 2110 (1976).

Kamatani, O.

K. Hotate, O. Kamatani, Electron. Lett. 25, 1503 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kingsley, S. A.

S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 21, 434 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

Takada, K.

Uchida, K.

Wong, R.

K. Iizuka, Imai, A. P. Freundorfer, R. James, R. Wong, S. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 932 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 21, 434 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Hotate, O. Kamatani, Electron. Lett. 25, 1503 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Iizuka, Imai, A. P. Freundorfer, R. James, R. Wong, S. Fujii, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 932 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of the optical system for multimode frequency-domain reflectometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical simulations: (a) the Gaussian profile of a multimode laser, (b) an interferospectrum, (c) a spatialgram showing an object image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results: (a), (b), and (c) are numerical analyses corresponding to Figs. 2(a), 2(b), and 2(c), respectively.

Equations (4)

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f m = f 0 + ( m - 1 ) Δ f ,
E mr ( f m ) = S ( 0 ) E m exp ( j 2 π f m t ) , E ms ( f m ) = S ( z ) E m exp ( j 2 π f m ( t - 2 z / v ) ] ,
{ I m ( f m ) } = 1 M m = 1 M I m ( f m ) = 1 M m = 1 M E mr ( f m ) + E ms ( f m ) 2 = 1 M m = 1 M { [ S 2 ( 0 ) + S 2 ( z ) ] E m 2 + 2 S ( 0 ) S ( z ) E m 2 cos ( 4 π f m z / v ) } .
R ( z c ) = 1 M m = 1 M I m ( f m ) cos ( 4 π Δ f z c / v m ) = E o 2 S 2 ( 0 ) δ ( z c ) + E o 2 S ( 0 ) S ( z ) cos 2 π × [ 2 ( f 0 - Δ f ) z / v + ( M + 1 ) Δ f ( z c - z ) / v ] × sin [ 2 M π Δ f ( z c - z ) / v ] sin [ 2 π Δ f ( z c - z ) / v ] ,

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