Abstract

We have grown and characterized crystals of BaTiO3 doped with Rh. These crystals have a blue-green color that is probably due to charge-transfer optical transitions involving Rh4+ and/or Rh3+. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Rh4+ centers. Self-pumped phase-conjugation measurements were performed at wavelengths between 776 and 990 nm. Reflectivities near 80% were obtained throughout this wavelength range. In addition, self-pumped phase-conjugation buildup times were measured as a function of input power at 851 nm and are significantly faster than in undoped or Co-doped crystals studied previously. BaTiO3:Rh is therefore a promising material for near-infrared photorefractive applications.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, M. H. Garrett, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2245 (1990).
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  2. D. Rytz, R. R. Stephens, B. A. Wechsler, M. S. Keirstead, T. M. Baer, Opt. Lett. 15, 1279 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 17, 103 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, C. C. Nelson, K. W. Kirby, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 864 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Abragam, B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970), Chap. 3.
  8. E. Possenriede, P. Jacobs, O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 4719 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 3263 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. S. Griffith, The Theory of Transition-Metal Ions (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1961), Chap. 9.
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  12. C. K. Jørgensen, Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 151 (1957).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

E. Possenriede, P. Jacobs, O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 4719 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 3263 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 17, 103 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

1970 (1)

A. Raizman, J. T. Suss, S. Szapiro, Phys. Lett. 32A, 30 (1970).

1968 (1)

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

C. K. Jørgensen, Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 151 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Abragam, A.

A. Abragam, B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970), Chap. 3.

Baer, T. M.

Bleaney, B.

A. Abragam, B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970), Chap. 3.

Camlibel, I.

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

DiDomenico, M.

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, M. H.

Griffith, J. S.

J. S. Griffith, The Theory of Transition-Metal Ions (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1961), Chap. 9.

Hribek, P.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, P.

E. Possenriede, P. Jacobs, O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 4719 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

Jørgensen, C. K.

C. K. Jørgensen, Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 151 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Keirstead, M. S.

Kirby, K. W.

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, C. C. Nelson, K. W. Kirby, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 864 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, R. A.

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 3263 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, C. C.

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, C. C. Nelson, K. W. Kirby, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 864 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, M. H. Garrett, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2245 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Possenriede, E.

E. Possenriede, P. Jacobs, O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 4719 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Raizman, A.

A. Raizman, J. T. Suss, S. Szapiro, Phys. Lett. 32A, 30 (1970).

Ross, G. W.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rytz, D.

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, C. C. Nelson, K. W. Kirby, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 864 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, M. H. Garrett, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2245 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Rytz, R. R. Stephens, B. A. Wechsler, M. S. Keirstead, T. M. Baer, Opt. Lett. 15, 1279 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirmer, O. F.

E. Possenriede, P. Jacobs, O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 4719 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R. N.

Stephens, R. R.

Suss, J. T.

A. Raizman, J. T. Suss, S. Szapiro, Phys. Lett. 32A, 30 (1970).

Szapiro, S.

A. Raizman, J. T. Suss, S. Szapiro, Phys. Lett. 32A, 30 (1970).

Warde, C.

Wechsler, B. A.

Wemple, S. H.

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Acta Chem. Scand. (1)

C. K. Jørgensen, Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 151 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, C. C. Nelson, K. W. Kirby, J. Cryst. Growth 99, 864 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

E. Possenriede, P. Jacobs, O. F. Schirmer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 4719 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. W. Ross, P. Hribek, R. W. Eason, M. H. Garrett, D. Rytz, Opt. Commun. 101, 60 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Raizman, J. T. Suss, S. Szapiro, Phys. Lett. 32A, 30 (1970).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. N. Schwartz, B. A. Wechsler, R. A. McFarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 3263 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. S. Griffith, The Theory of Transition-Metal Ions (Cambridge U. Press, London, 1961), Chap. 9.

A. Abragam, B. Bleaney, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions (Oxford U. Press, London, 1970), Chap. 3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical absorption spectra of three Rh-doped BaTiO3 crystals. The light was polarized parallel to the c axis. The numbers indicate the concentration of Rh in the melts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EPR spectrum of Rh4+ in single-crystal BaTiO3 at 25 K with B ‖ [111]. Instrumental parameters are as follows: υ = 9.24261 GHz; microwave power, ~1 mW; modulation amplitude, 2 G.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase-conjugate reflectivity of BaTiO3 :Rh crystal as a function of wavelength. The incident intensity was 3.9 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Buildup time of the self-pumped phase-conjugate reflectivity at 851 nm as a function of input power.

Equations (2)

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Rh 4 + + h υ Rh 3 + + h V B + .
Rh 3 + + h υ Rh 4 + + e C B - .

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