Abstract

We demonstrate a new nonlinear optical field cross-correlation technique for two-dimensional imaging through scattering media. The technique, the coherently amplified Raman polarization gate, relies on both the polarization and coherence sensitivity of broadband stimulated Raman amplification to produce a high-contrast gate with temporal resolution of the order of the inverse bandwidth of the pump.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, Science 259, 1463 (1993)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, S. Svanberg, O. Jarlman, Opt. Lett. 15, 1179 (1990)
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  3. J. C. Hebden, Opt. Lett. 17, 444 (1992)
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  4. J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, Appl. Opt. 30, 788 (1991)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 32, 554 (1993)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 18, 241 (1993)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, Opt. Lett. 16, 487 (1991)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Leith, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, R. Masri, J. Rudd, J. Valdmanis, Appl. Opt. 30, 4204 (1991)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fugimoto, E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993)
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  10. M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 16, 1868 (1991)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Salin, J. Squier, K. Clay, Opt. Commun. 88, 151 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Let. 16, 1019 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 261–283
  14. M. Bashkansky, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 18, 2132 (1993); “Image upconversion using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published)
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  15. M. D. Levinson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 121–122
  16. G. P. Dzhotyan, Yu. E. D’Yakov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, I. Mikhailov, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 431 (1977)
  17. W. R. Trutna, Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 648 (1979)
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. A. Staepperts, W. H. Long, H. Komine, Opt. Lett. 5, 4 (1980)
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Eggleston, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 850 (1980)
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 12

1993 (5)

1992 (2)

J. C. Hebden, Opt. Lett. 17, 444 (1992)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Salin, J. Squier, K. Clay, Opt. Commun. 88, 151 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1991 (6)

1990 (1)

1980 (2)

E. A. Staepperts, W. H. Long, H. Komine, Opt. Lett. 5, 4 (1980)
[CrossRef]

J. Eggleston, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 850 (1980)
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

W. R. Trutna, Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 648 (1979)
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

G. P. Dzhotyan, Yu. E. D’Yakov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, I. Mikhailov, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 431 (1977)

Alfano, R. R.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Bashkansky, M.

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, Science 259, 1463 (1993)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

Byer, R. L.

J. Eggleston, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 850 (1980)
[CrossRef]

W. R. Trutna, Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 648 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Clay, K.

F. Salin, J. Squier, K. Clay, Opt. Commun. 88, 151 (1992)
[CrossRef]

D’Yakov, Yu. E.

G. P. Dzhotyan, Yu. E. D’Yakov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, I. Mikhailov, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 431 (1977)

Dai, H.

Dilworth, D.

Duncan, M. D.

Dzhotyan, G. P.

G. P. Dzhotyan, Yu. E. D’Yakov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, I. Mikhailov, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 431 (1977)

Eggleston, J.

J. Eggleston, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 850 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Fugimoto, J. G.

Hebden, J. C.

Hee, M. R.

Ho, P. P.

Ivanov, A. P.

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 12

Izatt, J. A.

Jacobson, J. M.

Jarlman, O.

Katsev, I. L.

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 12

Komine, H.

Kruger, R. A.

Leith, E.

Levinson, M. D.

M. D. Levinson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 121–122

Liang, X.

Liu, F.

Long, W. H.

Lopez, J.

Mahon, R.

Masri, R.

Mikhailov, I.

G. P. Dzhotyan, Yu. E. D’Yakov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, I. Mikhailov, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 431 (1977)

Mironov, A. B.

G. P. Dzhotyan, Yu. E. D’Yakov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, I. Mikhailov, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 431 (1977)

Park, Y. K.

W. R. Trutna, Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 648 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J.

Rudd, J.

Salin, F.

F. Salin, J. Squier, K. Clay, Opt. Commun. 88, 151 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 261–283

Squier, J.

F. Salin, J. Squier, K. Clay, Opt. Commun. 88, 151 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Staepperts, E. A.

Stevenson, D. K.

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, Science 259, 1463 (1993)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

Swanson, E. A.

Tankersley, L. L.

Trutna, W. R.

W. R. Trutna, Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 648 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J.

Wang, L.

Wolbarsht, M.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 261–283

Wong, K. S.

Xing, Q.

K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Let. 16, 1019 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 32, 554 (1993)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Let. 16, 1019 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 12

Zubarev, I. G.

G. P. Dzhotyan, Yu. E. D’Yakov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, I. Mikhailov, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 431 (1977)

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. R. Trutna, Y. K. Park, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 648 (1979)
[CrossRef]

J. Eggleston, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 850 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (1)

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer through a Scattering Medium (SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 12

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Salin, J. Squier, K. Clay, Opt. Commun. 88, 151 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Let. (1)

K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Let. 16, 1019 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

Science (1)

D. A. Benaron, D. K. Stevenson, Science 259, 1463 (1993)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

G. P. Dzhotyan, Yu. E. D’Yakov, I. G. Zubarev, A. B. Mironov, I. Mikhailov, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 431 (1977)

Other (2)

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 261–283

M. D. Levinson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982), pp. 121–122

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the CARP-gating experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CARP-gate signal as a function of relative time delay between pump and Stokes beams. Curve a, No scatterer present in Stokes beam path. Curve b, Suspension of 109/cm3 1-μm-diameter polystyrene microspheres in the Stokes beam path (vertical scale is 109 times the scale for curve a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of a two-dimensional object using CARP. (a) Ungated image with no scatterer in the Stokes beam path. (b) Ungated image with a suspension of 109/cm3 1-μm-diameter polystyrene microspheres in the Stokes beam path (μs = 2 mm−1, μs′ = 0.2 mm−1; the length of the cell containing the scatterer was 1 cm). (c) Gated image with no scatterer in the Stokes beam path. (d) Gated image with a suspension of 109/cm3 1-μm-diameter polystyrene microspheres in the Stokes beam path.

Equations (4)

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E = 1 = - N / 2 N / 2 E n ( z ) exp { i [ ϕ 1 + ( ω + l Δ ) t ] } ,
I S ( l ) = [ exp ( I g l / 2 ) - 1 ] 2 4 I S ( 0 ) .
I S ( l ) = π 2 6 Γ 2 N Δ 2 [ exp ( I g l / 2 ) - 1 ] 2 4 I S ( 0 ) .
C = I S ( τ = 0 ) I S ( τ 1 / Δ ) ,

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