Abstract

The effects of Er–Er pairs on the characteristics of Er-doped fiber amplifiers are analyzed theoretically. Pairs are found to have little effect on the amplifier optimum length, signal saturation power, and noise figure (at constant gain) but to cause significant reduction in the gain, even at residual levels, quantitatively consistent with fiber laser measurements. A maximum tolerable fraction of paired ions near 8%, corresponding to approximately 400 mole parts in 106 Er2O3, is predicted for near-optimum gain efficiency in Al–Ge silica fibers.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Quimby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 50 (1992).
  4. J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2014 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1992).
  6. P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1992).
  7. P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).
  8. H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blätte, P. Balmer, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Sadowski, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. H. Pantell, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 18, 927 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Wyatt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 54 (1990).

1993

1992

R. S. Quimby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 50 (1992).

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1992).

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1992).

1991

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

R. Wyatt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 54 (1990).

1973

H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blätte, P. Balmer, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, P.

H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blätte, P. Balmer, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J.-F.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blätte, M.

H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blätte, P. Balmer, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Blixt, P.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carlnäs, T.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Danielmeyer, H. G.

H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blätte, P. Balmer, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1992).

Digonnet, M. J. F.

R. W. Sadowski, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. H. Pantell, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 18, 927 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1992).

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1992).

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

Georges, T.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jaskorzynska, B.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kalman, R. F.

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

Kim, B. Y.

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

Lamouler, P.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pantell, R. H.

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 50 (1992).

Sadowski, R. W.

Shaw, H. J.

R. W. Sadowski, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. H. Pantell, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 18, 927 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1992).

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1992).

Wagener, J. L.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1992).

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1992).

Wyatt, R.

R. Wyatt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 54 (1990).

Wysocki, P. F.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Opt. Lett. 18, 2014 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1992).

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1992).

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

Appl. Phys.

H. G. Danielmeyer, M. Blätte, P. Balmer, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

R. Wyatt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 54 (1990).

R. S. Quimby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 50 (1992).

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1992).

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1992).

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. F. Digonnet, B. Y. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the gain on the fiber length for different percentages of paired ions, a launched pump power of 70 mW, and a signal power of −100 dBm. The dashed curve traces the locus of maximum gain.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the optimum length (at a launched pump power of 70 mW) and the maximum gain coefficient on the percentage of paired ions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Small-signal gain versus pump power in EDFA’s with different percentages of paired ions; for each curve the fiber length is the optimum length at 70 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal-induced depletion of the gain in an optimum-length EDFA with increasing percentages of paired ions. The pump power is adjusted for each curve for a 20-dB small-signal gain (−50-dBm signal).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Noise figure versus absorbed pump power in an EDFA with increasing percentages of paired ions; for each curve the length is the optimum length at 70 mW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Noise figure dependence on the percentage of paired ions for (a) a constant launched pump power Pp = 70 mW and l = lopt, (b) Pp = 70 mW and the fiber length that minimizes the noise figure, and (c) constant gain of 30 dB and l = lopt.

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