Abstract

We introduce a simple modification to the Z-scan technique that results in a sensitivity enhancement that permits measurement of nonlinearly induced wave-front distortion of ≃λ/104. This sensitivity was achieved with 10-Hz repetition-rate pulsed laser sources. Sensitivity to nonlinear absorption is also enhanced by a factor of ≃3. This method permits characterization of nonlinear thin films without the need for waveguiding.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Ma, A. S. Gomez, C. B. de Araúijo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1692, 63 (1992).
  6. R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 18, 194 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1035 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Zhao, P. Palffy-Muhoray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1613 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Weaire, B. S. Wherrett, D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, Opt. Lett. 4, 331 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1692, 63 (1992).

1991 (2)

H. Ma, A. S. Gomez, C. B. de Araúijo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1035 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1979 (1)

Chapple, P. B.

J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1035 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Araúijo, C. B.

H. Ma, A. S. Gomez, C. B. de Araúijo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

Gomez, A. S.

H. Ma, A. S. Gomez, C. B. de Araúijo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 18, 194 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1692, 63 (1992).

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J. A.

J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1035 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. S. Gomez, C. B. de Araúijo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Zhao, P. Palffy-Muhoray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 18, 194 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1692, 63 (1992).

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 18, 194 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1692, 63 (1992).

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. D.

Van Stryland, E. W.

R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 18, 194 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1692, 63 (1992).

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, J. Wang, R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 17, 258 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1692, 63 (1992).

Weaire, D.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, P. Palffy-Muhoray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Ma, A. S. Gomez, C. B. de Araúijo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhao, P. Palffy-Muhoray, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1613 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1035 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1692, 63 (1992).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for the EZ scan. D1 is the input energy monitor, and D3 measures the energy transmitted through the sample and past the disk. D2 monitors the energy transmitted through the reference arm, which is identical to the signal arm with no sample. The measured quantity is the ratio D3/D2. Inset: CCD image of a picosecond ND:YAG laser beam after it passes a 99% obscuration disk.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EZ scan of a 1.5-mm-thick BK-7 sample performed with a frequency-doubled picosecond Nd:YAG laser. The solid curve is a fit to the data, indicating a peak wave-front distortion of λ/2200 with a S/N of approximately 5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated ΔTpv for an EZ scan (solid curve) and a Z scan (dashed curve) versus the normalized aperture or disk radius, respectively, for a peak on-axis phase shift of |ΔΦ0| = 0.1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental comparison of an EZ scan (filled circles) and a Z scan (open circles) of toluene under identical conditions. Note that the Z-scan data are plotted on a 10× expanded scale for clarity. The laser source is a frequency-doubled nanosecond Nd:YAG laser. The solid and dashed curves are the result of calculations with a common ΔΦ0 obtained from a best fit to the Z scan only.

Equations (2)

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Δ T pv 0.406 ( 1 - S ) 0.25 Δ Φ 0 ,
Δ T pv 0.68 ( 1 - S ) - 0.44 Δ Φ 0 ,

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