Abstract

The fundamental mechanism of attenuated total-reflectance spectroscopy is elucidated. The characteristic minimum in the reflected intensity is interpreted as being a result of the interference between two events indistinguishable to the detector: the incoming photon either is totally reflected or is virtually converted into a surface-mode quantum. A simple universal resonance formula is derived that accounts satisfactorily for both the amplitude and the phase of the reflected light.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1988).
  2. A. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  3. T. Esslinger, M. Weidenmüller, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 18, 450 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Knoll, Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 16, 29 (1991).
  6. S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, J. D. Swalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Möller, U. Albrecht, J. Boneberg, B. Koslowski, P. Leiderer, K. Dransfeld, Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B 9, 506 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 96, 225 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 559 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Lagois, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 680 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Halzen, A. D. Martin, Quarks and Leptons (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  13. E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Pockrand, Surf. Sci. 72, 577 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Klopfleisch, M. Golz, U. Trutschel, Appl. Opt. 31, 5017 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. G. Montgomery, Technique of Microwave Measurement (Dover, New York, 1966) See, for example; Ch. P. Poole, Electron Spin Resonance (Wiley, New York, 1967).

1993 (2)

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 96, 225 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Esslinger, M. Weidenmüller, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 18, 450 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

M. Klopfleisch, M. Golz, U. Trutschel, Appl. Opt. 31, 5017 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (4)

R. Möller, U. Albrecht, J. Boneberg, B. Koslowski, P. Leiderer, K. Dransfeld, Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B 9, 506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Knoll, Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 16, 29 (1991).

S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, J. D. Swalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 559 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

I. Pockrand, Surf. Sci. 72, 577 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. Lagois, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 680 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, U.

R. Möller, U. Albrecht, J. Boneberg, B. Koslowski, P. Leiderer, K. Dransfeld, Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B 9, 506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 96, 225 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boneberg, J.

R. Möller, U. Albrecht, J. Boneberg, B. Koslowski, P. Leiderer, K. Dransfeld, Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B 9, 506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bradberry, G. W.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 559 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradbery, G. W.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dransfeld, K.

R. Möller, U. Albrecht, J. Boneberg, B. Koslowski, P. Leiderer, K. Dransfeld, Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B 9, 506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Esslinger, T.

Fischer, B.

J. Lagois, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 680 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Golz, M.

Halzen, F.

F. Halzen, A. D. Martin, Quarks and Leptons (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Esslinger, M. Weidenmüller, A. Hemmerich, T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 18, 450 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 96, 225 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heckl, W. M.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmerich, A.

Herminghaus, S.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 96, 225 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, J. D. Swalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Klopfleisch, M.

Knoll, W.

W. Knoll, Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 16, 29 (1991).

Koslowski, B.

R. Möller, U. Albrecht, J. Boneberg, B. Koslowski, P. Leiderer, K. Dransfeld, Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B 9, 506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lagois, J.

J. Lagois, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 680 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Leiderer, P.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 96, 225 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Möller, U. Albrecht, J. Boneberg, B. Koslowski, P. Leiderer, K. Dransfeld, Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B 9, 506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marti, O.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 96, 225 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Martin, A. D.

F. Halzen, A. D. Martin, Quarks and Leptons (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Mlynek, J.

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 96, 225 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Möller, R.

R. Möller, U. Albrecht, J. Boneberg, B. Koslowski, P. Leiderer, K. Dransfeld, Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B 9, 506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, C. G.

C. G. Montgomery, Technique of Microwave Measurement (Dover, New York, 1966) See, for example; Ch. P. Poole, Electron Spin Resonance (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Pedarnig, J. D.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, Surf. Sci. 72, 577 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1988).

Sambles, J. R.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 559 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, B. A.

Specht, M.

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swalen, J. D.

Trutschel, U.

Weidenmüller, M.

Yang, F.

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 559 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Contemp. Phys. (1)

J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradbery, F. Yang, Contemp. Phys. 32, 173 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. (1)

W. Knoll, Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 16, 29 (1991).

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. Marti, H. Bielefeldt, B. Hecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, J. Mlynek, Opt. Commun. 96, 225 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Specht, J. D. Pedarnig, W. M. Heckl, T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, G. W. Bradberry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 559 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lagois, B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 680 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

I. Pockrand, Surf. Sci. 72, 577 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. Möller, U. Albrecht, J. Boneberg, B. Koslowski, P. Leiderer, K. Dransfeld, Vac. J. Sci. Technol. B 9, 506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. G. Montgomery, Technique of Microwave Measurement (Dover, New York, 1966) See, for example; Ch. P. Poole, Electron Spin Resonance (Wiley, New York, 1967).

F. Halzen, A. D. Martin, Quarks and Leptons (Wiley, New York, 1984).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1988).

A. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Attenuated total reflectance owing to resonant excitation of surface plasmons on a 50-nm-thick silver film. The reflected light intensity (λ = 632.8 nm) is plotted as a function of the angle of incidence θ.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pictorial representations of the two possible photon paths leading from the light source to the detector: (a) total internal reflection, (b) temporary conversion of the photon into a SMQ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of R versus k according to Eq. (5). Parameters are k0 = 1 and Γrad = Γint = α/2 = 0.1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Loci of r(k) in the complex plane for Γrad < Γint (dotted curves), Γrad = Γint (dashed curves), and Γrad > Γint (solid curves). The arrows indicate the direction of the increasing wave vector. (a) Result according to Eq. (5)radint = 0.42, 1.00, 2.27). (b) Exact (Fresnel) result for surface plasmons on silver, as in Fig. 1 (silver film thicknesses 63, 53, and 43 nm). The phase of total internal reflection at the bare prism base has been subtracted.

Equations (5)

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( Δ 1 c 2 t t + γ t ) E SMQ = 0 ,
G SMQ ( k ) = ( k 0 2 k 2 + i Γ tot ) 1 .
r b r a = ( α ) 2 ( 1 ) G SMQ ( k ) = i α k 0 2 k 2 + i ( Γ int + Γ rad ) ,
R = | r a + r b | 2 = 1 2 α ( Γ int + Γ rad ) α 2 ( k 0 2 k 2 ) 2 + ( Γ int + Γ rad ) 2 .
R = 1 4 Γ rad Γ int ( k 0 2 k 2 ) 2 + ( Γ int + Γ rad ) 2 .

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