Abstract

We have accurately measured the nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the glass found in silica-core and dispersion-shifted optical fibers. We find that at 1.319 µm the n2 of silica-core and dispersion-shifted fibers is 2.36 × 10−16 and 2.52 × 10−16 cm2/W (±5%), respectively. We also estimate that the n2 of germania is three times the n2 of pure silica. Because the wavelength dependence of n2 between 1.3 and 1.5 µm is known to be small, our measured values should also be valid at 1.55 µm.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 121 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. L. Smith, in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. 3, pp.259–281.
  3. R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. S. Kim, K. W. Quoi, in Technical Digest of Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 1992 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 71–75.
  4. J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, Electron. Lett. 23, 781 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 14,1948 (1978). Note that in this paper an incorrect factor of 6/5 was used to reduce n2 as measured in anon-polarization-preserving fiber to the value for linear polarization.
  6. W. J. Stewart, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1451 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. A. Lenehan, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 2663 (1983).
  8. H. C. Lefvevre, Electron. Lett. 16, 778 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. C. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Monerie, Y. Durteste, Electron. Lett. 23,961 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Wada, T. O. Tsun, R. Yamauchi, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (VDE-Verlag,Berlin, 1992), p. 42.
  14. N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. OwyOung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991); personal discussion with M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. E. Torruellas, “The optical cubic susceptibility dispersion of some transparent thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1990), p. 140.

1992 (1)

S. C. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991); personal discussion with M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

M. Monerie, Y. Durteste, Electron. Lett. 23,961 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, Electron. Lett. 23, 781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. C. Lefvevre, Electron. Lett. 16, 778 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

T. A. Lenehan, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 2663 (1983).

1982 (1)

W. J. Stewart, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1451 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 14,1948 (1978). Note that in this paper an incorrect factor of 6/5 was used to reduce n2 as measured in anon-polarization-preserving fiber to the value for linear polarization.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. OwyOung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

S. C. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boling, N. L.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. OwyOung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Durteste, Y.

M. Monerie, Y. Durteste, Electron. Lett. 23,961 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Evangelides, S. C.

S. C. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. J.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. OwyOung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

S. C. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. S. Kim, K. W. Quoi, in Technical Digest of Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 1992 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 71–75.

Lefvevre, H. C.

H. C. Lefvevre, Electron. Lett. 16, 778 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lenehan, T. A.

T. A. Lenehan, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 2663 (1983).

Lin, C.

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 14,1948 (1978). Note that in this paper an incorrect factor of 6/5 was used to reduce n2 as measured in anon-polarization-preserving fiber to the value for linear polarization.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

S. C. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

M. Monerie, Y. Durteste, Electron. Lett. 23,961 (1987).
[CrossRef]

OwyOung, A.

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. OwyOung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Quoi, K. W.

R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. S. Kim, K. W. Quoi, in Technical Digest of Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 1992 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 71–75.

Reed, W. A.

R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. S. Kim, K. W. Quoi, in Technical Digest of Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 1992 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 71–75.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991); personal discussion with M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. 3, pp.259–281.

Stewart, W. J.

W. J. Stewart, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1451 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 14,1948 (1978). Note that in this paper an incorrect factor of 6/5 was used to reduce n2 as measured in anon-polarization-preserving fiber to the value for linear polarization.

R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. S. Kim, K. W. Quoi, in Technical Digest of Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 1992 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 71–75.

Stone, J.

J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, Electron. Lett. 23, 781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, Electron. Lett. 23, 781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Torruellas, W. E.

W. E. Torruellas, “The optical cubic susceptibility dispersion of some transparent thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1990), p. 140.

Tsun, T. O.

A. Wada, T. O. Tsun, R. Yamauchi, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (VDE-Verlag,Berlin, 1992), p. 42.

Wada, A.

A. Wada, T. O. Tsun, R. Yamauchi, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (VDE-Verlag,Berlin, 1992), p. 42.

Weber, M. J.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, R.

A. Wada, T. O. Tsun, R. Yamauchi, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (VDE-Verlag,Berlin, 1992), p. 42.

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

T. A. Lenehan, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 62, 2663 (1983).

Electron. Lett. (3)

H. C. Lefvevre, Electron. Lett. 16, 778 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, L. W. Stulz, Electron. Lett. 23, 781 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Monerie, Y. Durteste, Electron. Lett. 23,961 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

N. L. Boling, A. J. Glass, A. OwyOung, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 601 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991); personal discussion with M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla. (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Stewart, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1451 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2497 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. C. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. H. Stolen, C. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 14,1948 (1978). Note that in this paper an incorrect factor of 6/5 was used to reduce n2 as measured in anon-polarization-preserving fiber to the value for linear polarization.

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. L. Smith, in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. 3, pp.259–281.

R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. S. Kim, K. W. Quoi, in Technical Digest of Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 1992 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 71–75.

W. E. Torruellas, “The optical cubic susceptibility dispersion of some transparent thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1990), p. 140.

A. Wada, T. O. Tsun, R. Yamauchi, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (VDE-Verlag,Berlin, 1992), p. 42.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (1)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Self-phase-modulation technique for measurement of n2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. n2/Aeff, Aeff and n2 for Five Dispersion-Shifted and Silica-Core Fibers α

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ ϕ = 2 π L δ n λ = 2 π L λ n 2 P m A eff .
A eff = 2 π [ E ( r ) 2 r d r ] 2 E ( r ) 4 r d r .

Metrics