Abstract

A transient charge-transport model is developed to evaluate the resolution limits of optically addressed spatial light modulators. The effect of bulk charge diffusion on resolution is largely independent of the mobility in the semiconductor layer, and the resolution is limited by the lateral diffusion length of charge carriers in transit. The effects of charge drift, diffusion, and trapping at the interface between the semiconductor and the light-modulating layer depend strongly on the interface properties. The resolution ranges from 2 to 700 line pairs/mm for respective diffusion lengths of 16.1 to 0.16 μm at the interface.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Partovi, A. M. Glass, D. H. Olson, G. J. Zydzik, H. M. O’Bryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

1989 (3)

J. Chen, T. Minemoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1281 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Armitage, J. I. Thackara, W. D. Eades, Appl. Opt. 28, 4763 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, W. Li, R. A. Rice, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, M. A. Handschy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 537 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. Williams, S. G. Latham, C. M. J. Powles, M. A. Powell, R. C. Chittick, A. P. Sparks, N. Collings, J. Phys. D 21, S156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, P. G. Reif, R. N. Schwartz, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1978 (1)

B. A. Horwitz, F. J. Corbett, Opt. Eng. 17, 353 (1978).

1974 (1)

W. R. Roach, IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-21, 453 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ames, W. F.

W. F. Ames, Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1977).

Armitage, D.

Braatz, P. O.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, P. G. Reif, R. N. Schwartz, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chittick, R. C.

D. Williams, S. G. Latham, C. M. J. Powles, M. A. Powell, R. C. Chittick, A. P. Sparks, N. Collings, J. Phys. D 21, S156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Collings, N.

D. Williams, S. G. Latham, C. M. J. Powles, M. A. Powell, R. C. Chittick, A. P. Sparks, N. Collings, J. Phys. D 21, S156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, F. J.

B. A. Horwitz, F. J. Corbett, Opt. Eng. 17, 353 (1978).

Eades, W. D.

Efron, U.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, P. G. Reif, R. N. Schwartz, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, S.

Glass, A. M.

A. Partovi, A. M. Glass, D. H. Olson, G. J. Zydzik, H. M. O’Bryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grinberg, J.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, P. G. Reif, R. N. Schwartz, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Handschy, M. A.

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, W. Li, R. A. Rice, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, M. A. Handschy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 537 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Horwitz, B. A.

B. A. Horwitz, F. J. Corbett, Opt. Eng. 17, 353 (1978).

Johnson, K. M.

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, W. Li, R. A. Rice, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, M. A. Handschy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 537 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

R. S. Muller, T. I. Kamins, Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chaps. 1 and 5.

Kurokawa, T.

Latham, S. G.

D. Williams, S. G. Latham, C. M. J. Powles, M. A. Powell, R. C. Chittick, A. P. Sparks, N. Collings, J. Phys. D 21, S156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, W. Li, R. A. Rice, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, M. A. Handschy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 537 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Little, M. J.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, P. G. Reif, R. N. Schwartz, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, Y.

Minemoto, T.

Moddel, G.

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, W. Li, R. A. Rice, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, M. A. Handschy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 537 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. S.

R. S. Muller, T. I. Kamins, Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chaps. 1 and 5.

Nagao, Y.

Nolte, D. D.

D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 92, 199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O’Bryan, H. M.

A. Partovi, A. M. Glass, D. H. Olson, G. J. Zydzik, H. M. O’Bryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, M.

Olson, D. H.

A. Partovi, A. M. Glass, D. H. Olson, G. J. Zydzik, H. M. O’Bryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Owechko, Y.

Pagano-Stauffer, L. A.

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, W. Li, R. A. Rice, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, M. A. Handschy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 537 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Partovi, A.

A. Partovi, A. M. Glass, D. H. Olson, G. J. Zydzik, H. M. O’Bryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Powell, M. A.

D. Williams, S. G. Latham, C. M. J. Powles, M. A. Powell, R. C. Chittick, A. P. Sparks, N. Collings, J. Phys. D 21, S156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Powles, C. M. J.

D. Williams, S. G. Latham, C. M. J. Powles, M. A. Powell, R. C. Chittick, A. P. Sparks, N. Collings, J. Phys. D 21, S156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reif, P. G.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, P. G. Reif, R. N. Schwartz, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rice, R. A.

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, W. Li, R. A. Rice, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, M. A. Handschy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 537 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roach, W. R.

W. R. Roach, IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-21, 453 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

Schwartz, R. N.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, P. G. Reif, R. N. Schwartz, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, A. P.

D. Williams, S. G. Latham, C. M. J. Powles, M. A. Powell, R. C. Chittick, A. P. Sparks, N. Collings, J. Phys. D 21, S156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tanguay, A. R.

Thackara, J. I.

Williams, D.

D. Williams, S. G. Latham, C. M. J. Powles, M. A. Powell, R. C. Chittick, A. P. Sparks, N. Collings, J. Phys. D 21, S156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zydzik, G. J.

A. Partovi, A. M. Glass, D. H. Olson, G. J. Zydzik, H. M. O’Bryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Moddel, K. M. Johnson, W. Li, R. A. Rice, L. A. Pagano-Stauffer, M. A. Handschy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 537 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Partovi, A. M. Glass, D. H. Olson, G. J. Zydzik, H. M. O’Bryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

W. R. Roach, IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-21, 453 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, P. G. Reif, R. N. Schwartz, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1356 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

D. Williams, S. G. Latham, C. M. J. Powles, M. A. Powell, R. C. Chittick, A. P. Sparks, N. Collings, J. Phys. D 21, S156 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 92, 199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. A. Horwitz, F. J. Corbett, Opt. Eng. 17, 353 (1978).

Other (2)

R. S. Muller, T. I. Kamins, Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chaps. 1 and 5.

W. F. Ames, Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1977).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Charge-spreading mechanisms in an OASLM: a, drift and b, diffusion in the bulk photosensor layer; c, drift and diffusion at the interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of bulk diffusion: plot of the critical spatial frequency (at which the effective MTF falls to 50%) versus lateral mobility and the effective lifetime in the semiconductor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective MTF that is due to the charge-spreading effects at the interface. The mobility and the trapping time are shown for each curve. The spatial average in the charge-collection rate is assumed to be 5 × 1013 cm−2 s−1, and its modulation is unity. The thicknesses of the photosenosr and the LC layers are 3 and 1 μm, respectively. The dielectric constants for the photosensor and the LC are 12ɛ0 (e.g., for a-Si:H) and 4ɛ0, respectively, where ɛ0 is the permittivity of free space.

Equations (5)

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N trans ( x , t ) t = D | | 2 N trans ( x , t ) x 2 + g ( x , t ) N trans ( x , t ) τ r N trans ( x , t ) T ,
N trans ( x , t ) = g 0 τ 0 [ 1 + m 1 + 4 π 2 D τ 0 f 2 cos ( 2 π fx ) ] , t T or τ r ,
N free ( x , t ) t = 1 q J free ( x , t ) x + g col ( x , t ) N free ( x , t ) τ t ,
N trap ( x , t ) t = N free ( x , t ) τ t ,
J free ( x , t ) = q μ s E x ( x , t ) N free ( x , t ) qD s N free ( x , t ) x ,

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