Abstract

We describe a novel frequency-domain photon migration instrument employing direct diode laser modulation and avalanche photodiode detection, which is capable of noninvasively determinating the optical properties of biological tissues in near real time. An infinite medium diffusion model was used to extract absorption and transport scattering coefficients from 300-kHz to 800-MHz photon-density wave phase data. Optical properties measured in tissue-simulating solutions at 670 nm agreed to within 10% of those expected.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. vandeVen, W. W. Mantulin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 122 (1991).
  2. M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. J. Tromberg, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, R. C. Haskell, Appl. Opt. 32, 607 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. V. O’Conner, D. Phillips, Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (Academic, New York, 1984), Chap. 1, pp. 9–34.
  5. J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1983), Chap. 3, pp. 51–91.
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. J. Madsen, P. Wyss, L. O. Svaasand, R. C. Haskell, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1191 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. T. Joines, Y. Zhang, C. Li, R. L. Jirtle, Med. Phys. 21, 547 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. I. Way, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 305 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, Appl. Opt. 30, 4507 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. J. Madsen, P. Wyss, L. O. Svaasand, R. C. Haskell, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Joines, Y. Zhang, C. Li, R. L. Jirtle, Med. Phys. 21, 547 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. vandeVen, W. W. Mantulin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 122 (1991).

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, Appl. Opt. 30, 4507 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

W. I. Way, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fishkin, J.

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. vandeVen, W. W. Mantulin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 122 (1991).

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. vandeVen, W. W. Mantulin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 122 (1991).

Haskell, R. C.

S. J. Madsen, P. Wyss, L. O. Svaasand, R. C. Haskell, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, R. C. Haskell, Appl. Opt. 32, 607 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jirtle, R. L.

W. T. Joines, Y. Zhang, C. Li, R. L. Jirtle, Med. Phys. 21, 547 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joines, W. T.

W. T. Joines, Y. Zhang, C. Li, R. L. Jirtle, Med. Phys. 21, 547 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1983), Chap. 3, pp. 51–91.
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

W. T. Joines, Y. Zhang, C. Li, R. L. Jirtle, Med. Phys. 21, 547 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madsen, S. J.

S. J. Madsen, P. Wyss, L. O. Svaasand, R. C. Haskell, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mantulin, W. W.

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. vandeVen, W. W. Mantulin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 122 (1991).

Moes, C. J. M.

O’Conner, D. V.

D. V. O’Conner, D. Phillips, Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (Academic, New York, 1984), Chap. 1, pp. 9–34.

O’Leary, M. A.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D.

D. V. O’Conner, D. Phillips, Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (Academic, New York, 1984), Chap. 1, pp. 9–34.

Prahl, S. A.

Star, W.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

S. J. Madsen, P. Wyss, L. O. Svaasand, R. C. Haskell, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, R. C. Haskell, Appl. Opt. 32, 607 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadir, Y.

S. J. Madsen, P. Wyss, L. O. Svaasand, R. C. Haskell, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. J. Madsen, P. Wyss, L. O. Svaasand, R. C. Haskell, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, L. O. Svaasand, T.-T. Tsay, R. C. Haskell, Appl. Opt. 32, 607 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsay, T.-T.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, Appl. Opt. 30, 4507 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Marle, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

vandeVen, M. J.

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. vandeVen, W. W. Mantulin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 122 (1991).

Way, W. I.

W. I. Way, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyss, P.

S. J. Madsen, P. Wyss, L. O. Svaasand, R. C. Haskell, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

W. T. Joines, Y. Zhang, C. Li, R. L. Jirtle, Med. Phys. 21, 547 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Lightwave Technol.

W. I. Way, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys.

W. T. Joines, Y. Zhang, C. Li, R. L. Jirtle, Med. Phys. 21, 547 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

S. J. Madsen, P. Wyss, L. O. Svaasand, R. C. Haskell, Y. Tadir, B. J. Tromberg, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1191 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

J. Fishkin, E. Gratton, M. J. vandeVen, W. W. Mantulin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 122 (1991).

Other

D. V. O’Conner, D. Phillips, Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (Academic, New York, 1984), Chap. 1, pp. 9–34.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1983), Chap. 3, pp. 51–91.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the frequency-domain instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Source modulation at 500 MHz and dc bias of 225 mA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase versus frequency response for 2% Intralipid as a function of NiSPC concentration. The curves represent beat fits to the data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Fitted and Actual Optical Properties

Equations (1)

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ϕ = r [ μ a ( μ a + μ s ) ] 1 / 2 ( 2 3 ) 1 / 2 × { [ 1 + ( ω μ a c ) 2 ] 1 / 2 1 } 1 / 2 .

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