Abstract

Scanning microscopy in combination with an interferometric correlation technique that uses short light pulses or broadband cw light is shown to permit enhanced depth discrimination, which is particularly useful for imaging through thick layers introducing spherical aberration and through scattering media.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  2. M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, Nonlinear Opt. 7, 129 (1994).
  3. K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 1010 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Yan, J.-C. Diels, Appl. Opt. 31, 6869 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, Opt. Lett. 16, 487 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 18, 1591 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1603 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. H. Liu, P. H. Cheng, J. Wang, Opt. Lett. 18, 678 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 775, 233 (1987).
  11. S. S. C. Chim, G. S. Kino, Appl. Opt. 26, 3775 (1990).
  12. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. Owen, G. Tearny, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC1.
  13. J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, R. F. Bonner, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WA1.
  14. M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC2.
  15. T. Wilson, A. R. Carlini, J. Microsc. 154, 243 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. R. Sheppard, C. J. Cogswell, Optik 87, 34 (1991).
  17. M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, Opt. Commun. 110, 492 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, M. Yadlowsky, “Interferometric versus confocal techniques for imaging microstructures in turbid biological media,”Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).
  19. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 1, Chap. 2, pp. 27–30.
  20. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, Opt. Commun. 110, 492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, Nonlinear Opt. 7, 129 (1994).

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

1991 (3)

1990 (1)

S. S. C. Chim, G. S. Kino, Appl. Opt. 26, 3775 (1990).

1989 (1)

T. Wilson, A. R. Carlini, J. Microsc. 154, 243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 775, 233 (1987).

K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, J. Noda, Appl. Opt. 26, 1603 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Bonner, R. F.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, R. F. Bonner, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WA1.

Carlini, A. R.

T. Wilson, A. R. Carlini, J. Microsc. 154, 243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, P. H.

Chida, K.

Chim, S. S. C.

S. S. C. Chim, G. S. Kino, Appl. Opt. 26, 3775 (1990).

Cogswell, C. J.

C. J. R. Sheppard, C. J. Cogswell, Optik 87, 34 (1991).

Cohen, F.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 775, 233 (1987).

Davidson, M.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 775, 233 (1987).

Diels, J.-C.

Dilworth, D.

Duncan, M. D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. Owen, G. Tearny, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC1.

Hee, M. R.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. Owen, G. Tearny, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC1.

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 1, Chap. 2, pp. 27–30.

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. Owen, G. Tearny, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC1.

Jacobson, J. M.

Kaufman, K.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 775, 233 (1987).

Kempe, M.

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, Nonlinear Opt. 7, 129 (1994).

M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, Opt. Commun. 110, 492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC2.

Kino, G. S.

S. S. C. Chim, G. S. Kino, Appl. Opt. 26, 3775 (1990).

Knuettel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, M. Yadlowsky, “Interferometric versus confocal techniques for imaging microstructures in turbid biological media,”Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, R. F. Bonner, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WA1.

Leith, E.

Liu, H. H.

Lopez, J.

Mahon, R.

Mazor, I.

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 775, 233 (1987).

Moon, J. A.

Noda, J.

Owen, G.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. Owen, G. Tearny, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC1.

Owen, G. M.

Reintjes, J.

Rudolph, W.

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, Nonlinear Opt. 7, 129 (1994).

M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, Opt. Commun. 110, 492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC2.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, M. Yadlowsky, “Interferometric versus confocal techniques for imaging microstructures in turbid biological media,”Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, R. F. Bonner, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WA1.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard, C. J. Cogswell, Optik 87, 34 (1991).

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. Owen, G. Tearny, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC1.

Takada, K.

Tearny, G.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. Owen, G. Tearny, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC1.

Thon, A.

M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, Opt. Commun. 110, 492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC2.

Valdmanis, J.

Wang, J.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson, A. R. Carlini, J. Microsc. 154, 243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Xing, Q.

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, M. Yadlowsky, “Interferometric versus confocal techniques for imaging microstructures in turbid biological media,”Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

Yan, C.

Yokohama, I.

Yoo, K. M.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Microsc. (1)

T. Wilson, A. R. Carlini, J. Microsc. 154, 243 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, Nonlinear Opt. 7, 129 (1994).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, Opt. Commun. 110, 492 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optik (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, C. J. Cogswell, Optik 87, 34 (1991).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. Davidson, K. Kaufman, I. Mazor, F. Cohen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 775, 233 (1987).

Other (6)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. Owen, G. Tearny, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC1.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, R. F. Bonner, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WA1.

M. Kempe, A. Thon, W. Rudolph, in Digest of Meeting on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), paper WC2.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuettel, M. Yadlowsky, “Interferometric versus confocal techniques for imaging microstructures in turbid biological media,”Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978), Vol. 1, Chap. 2, pp. 27–30.

T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for laser scanning microscopy using interference detection. GVD, group-velocity dispersion; BS, beam splitter; D’s, diodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured depth resolution (FWHM of a depth scan in units of the illumination wavelength) for (a) correlation with cw light (He–Ne laser), (b) ordinary confocal imaging, and (c) correlation with pulsed light (the square of the response is shown) versus illuminated numerical aperture. The solid and dotted curves are theoretical curves explained in the text; the dashed line describes the correlation signal (squared) obtained when the object is in focus and the reference mirror is translated. The inset shows scans across a straight edge as a measure for the transverse resolution obtained with a He–Ne laser without a top layer (i) and with a 10-mm glass plate (ii) (NA = 0.25). The squares correspond to the theory (no aberration).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured depth resolution (pulse illumination) for imaging through a 10-mm glass layer. The dotted curves are just a guide for the eye connecting the measurement points, the solid curve is the theoretical curve for confocal imaging assuming zero aberration, and the dashed curve shows the behavior of the measured field correlation squared.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Depth scan through 10-mm glass with correlation (pulse) and without correlation (confocal setup). The signal is shown on (a) a linear and (b) a logarithmic scale (NA = 0.27).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image of a resolution chart taken in the correlation (pulse) imaging mode. The object was covered by a 4-mm-thick suspension of 96-nm latex spheres in water corresponding to approximately 8 mean free path lengths (from Mie theory19).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( x , y , Δ z ) | h 2 ρ | A r ( t ) A i * ( t 2 Δ z / υ g ) 1 ,
I ( Δ z ) sin ( B Δ z ) B Δ z A r ( t ) A i * ( t 2 Δ z / υ g ) 1 ,
Δ f = d n 2 1 2 n 2 ( NA ) 2 .

Metrics