Abstract

Fluorescence from Cs atoms in a magneto-optical trap is detected under conditions of very low atomic density. Discrete steps are observed in the fluorescent signal versus time and are associated with the arrival and departure of individual trapped atoms. Histograms of the frequency of occurrence of a given level of fluorescence exhibit a series of uniformly spaced peaks that are attributed to the presence of N = 0, 1, 2 atoms in the trap.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. W. Gardiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1917 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. For an overview, seeH. J. Kimble, in Proceedings of XI International Laser Spectroscopy Conference, L. Bloomfield, T. Gallagher, D. Larson, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993), p. 340.
  3. H. J. Kimble, in Cavity Q.E.D., Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, Supplement 2, P. Berman, ed. (Academic, New York, 1994), p. 203.
  4. D. J. Heinzen, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2977 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, Science 209, 547 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980); D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, Phys. Lett. 82A, 75 (1981); W. Nagourney, G. Janik, H. Dehmelt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 643 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. E. Moerner, L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989); M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, R. J. Brecha, W. D. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1727 (1991); E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. W. R. Tobosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990); K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. E. Gibble, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 17, 526 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, R. J. Brecha, W. D. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1727 (1991); E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. R. Tobosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

D. J. Heinzen, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2977 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990); K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

W. E. Moerner, L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989); M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

C. W. Gardiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1917 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, Science 209, 547 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980); D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, Phys. Lett. 82A, 75 (1981); W. Nagourney, G. Janik, H. Dehmelt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, Science 209, 547 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecha, R. J.

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, R. J. Brecha, W. D. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1727 (1991); E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

J. W. R. Tobosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

K. E. Gibble, S. Kasapi, S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 17, 526 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cline, R. A.

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehmelt, H.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980); D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, Phys. Lett. 82A, 75 (1981); W. Nagourney, G. Janik, H. Dehmelt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardiner, C. W.

C. W. Gardiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1917 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibble, K. E.

Heinzen, D. J.

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Heinzen, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2977 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenstatt, M.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980); D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, Phys. Lett. 82A, 75 (1981); W. Nagourney, G. Janik, H. Dehmelt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

J. W. R. Tobosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kador, L.

W. E. Moerner, L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989); M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasapi, S.

Kimble, H. J.

J. W. R. Tobosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, R. J. Brecha, W. D. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1727 (1991); E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

For an overview, seeH. J. Kimble, in Proceedings of XI International Laser Spectroscopy Conference, L. Bloomfield, T. Gallagher, D. Larson, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993), p. 340.

H. J. Kimble, in Cavity Q.E.D., Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, Supplement 2, P. Berman, ed. (Academic, New York, 1994), p. 203.

Lee, R. B.

J. W. R. Tobosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. D.

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, R. J. Brecha, W. D. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1727 (1991); E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, J. D.

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989); M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990); K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuhauser, W.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980); D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, Phys. Lett. 82A, 75 (1981); W. Nagourney, G. Janik, H. Dehmelt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rempe, G.

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, R. J. Brecha, W. D. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1727 (1991); E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990); K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990); K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. J.

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, R. J. Brecha, W. D. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1727 (1991); E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorne, K. S.

V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, Science 209, 547 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobosa, J. W. R.

J. W. R. Tobosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toschek, P. E.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980); D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, Phys. Lett. 82A, 75 (1981); W. Nagourney, G. Janik, H. Dehmelt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vorontsov, Y. I.

V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, Science 209, 547 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990); K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

D. J. Heinzen, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2977 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

J. D. Miller, R. A. Cline, D. J. Heinzen, Phys. Rev. A 47, R4567 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980); D. J. Wineland, W. M. Itano, Phys. Lett. 82A, 75 (1981); W. Nagourney, G. Janik, H. Dehmelt, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 80, 643 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Heinzen, D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2977 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

C. W. Gardiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1917 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, R. J. Brecha, W. D. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1727 (1991); E. S. Polzik, J. Carri, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. R. Tobosa, G. Chen, Z. Hu, R. B. Lee, H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 3245 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990); K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989); M. Orrit, J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Braginsky, Y. I. Vorontsov, K. S. Thorne, Science 209, 547 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

For an overview, seeH. J. Kimble, in Proceedings of XI International Laser Spectroscopy Conference, L. Bloomfield, T. Gallagher, D. Larson, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993), p. 340.

H. J. Kimble, in Cavity Q.E.D., Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, Supplement 2, P. Berman, ed. (Academic, New York, 1994), p. 203.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the apparatus used in the single-atom trapping experiment. Two z beams for trapping propagate into and out of the page.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Trap signal C (counts/0.1 s) versus time under conditions of very low Cs background pressure. The discrete steps evident in the figure are interpreted as arising from the arrival and departure of individual Cs atoms in the trap. In moving from (a) to (b), the background Cs pressure has been increased by injection of a small amount of Cs through the V valve (Fig. 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of the frequency occurrence F(C) of a given number of detected counts in a 0.1-s interval, (a) Low Cs background pressure as in Fig. 2(a), (b) slightly higher pressure, as in Fig. 2(b). The arrows mark the counting levels C0, C1, C2 associated with N = 0, 1, 2 trapped atoms. The mean number of trapped atoms is. N ¯ = 0 . 1 in (a) and N ¯ = 0 . 6 in (b).

Equations (1)

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1 / τ off = 1 4 n Cs v Th 1 π ( v c v Th ) 4 ( 3 2 π ω 0 2 ) ,

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