Abstract

A description of a novel silver halide midinfrared optical fiber Y coupler including the construction method and the optical characteristics of the coupler is given. The coupler was used to irradiate a sample with a CO2 laser and to measure simultaneously the temperature rise of the sample.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. K. Barnoski, in Fundamental of Optical Fiber Communications, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), p. 334.
  2. J. M. Senior, in Optical Fiber Communications, Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992), p. 210.
  3. S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3732 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. J. Burger, D. A. Greenberg, P. Kirkitelos, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 206 (1990).
  5. A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 26, 1201 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 499 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2474 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  8. O. Eyal, A. Zur, O. Shenfeld, M. Gilo, A. Katzir, Opt. Eng. 33, 502 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Gal, A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  10. O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, “Temperature monitoring of CO2 laser tissue welding in the urinary tract using silver halide fiber optic radiometry,”Laser Surg. Med. (to be published).
  11. O. Eyal, A. Katzir, “Control techniques for TTL-triggered CO2 laser, used for irradiation of biological tissue, utilizing IR fiber optics,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  12. N. Barkay, F. Moser, D. Kowal, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 256 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2980 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1889 (1993).
    [Crossref]

1994 (1)

O. Eyal, A. Zur, O. Shenfeld, M. Gilo, A. Katzir, Opt. Eng. 33, 502 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2980 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1889 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. J. Burger, D. A. Greenberg, P. Kirkitelos, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 206 (1990).

1989 (1)

N. Barkay, F. Moser, D. Kowal, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (3)

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 256 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3732 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2474 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

D. Gal, A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 26, 1201 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 499 (1986).
[Crossref]

Barkay, N.

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2980 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1889 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, F. Moser, D. Kowal, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 256 (1988).
[Crossref]

Barnoski, M. K.

M. K. Barnoski, in Fundamental of Optical Fiber Communications, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), p. 334.

Burger, R. J.

R. J. Burger, D. A. Greenberg, P. Kirkitelos, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 206 (1990).

Eyal, O.

O. Eyal, A. Zur, O. Shenfeld, M. Gilo, A. Katzir, Opt. Eng. 33, 502 (1994).
[Crossref]

O. Eyal, A. Katzir, “Control techniques for TTL-triggered CO2 laser, used for irradiation of biological tissue, utilizing IR fiber optics,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, “Temperature monitoring of CO2 laser tissue welding in the urinary tract using silver halide fiber optic radiometry,”Laser Surg. Med. (to be published).

Gal, D.

D. Gal, A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gilo, M.

O. Eyal, A. Zur, O. Shenfeld, M. Gilo, A. Katzir, Opt. Eng. 33, 502 (1994).
[Crossref]

Goldwasser, B.

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, “Temperature monitoring of CO2 laser tissue welding in the urinary tract using silver halide fiber optic radiometry,”Laser Surg. Med. (to be published).

Greenberg, D. A.

R. J. Burger, D. A. Greenberg, P. Kirkitelos, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 206 (1990).

Katzir, A.

O. Eyal, A. Zur, O. Shenfeld, M. Gilo, A. Katzir, Opt. Eng. 33, 502 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1889 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2980 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, F. Moser, D. Kowal, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 256 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2474 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3732 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 26, 1201 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gal, A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827 (1987).
[Crossref]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 499 (1986).
[Crossref]

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, “Temperature monitoring of CO2 laser tissue welding in the urinary tract using silver halide fiber optic radiometry,”Laser Surg. Med. (to be published).

O. Eyal, A. Katzir, “Control techniques for TTL-triggered CO2 laser, used for irradiation of biological tissue, utilizing IR fiber optics,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Kirkitelos, P.

R. J. Burger, D. A. Greenberg, P. Kirkitelos, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 206 (1990).

Kosower, E. M.

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3732 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kowal, D.

N. Barkay, F. Moser, D. Kowal, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[Crossref]

Levite, A.

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 256 (1988).
[Crossref]

Moser, F.

N. Barkay, F. Moser, D. Kowal, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 256 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schnitzer, I.

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3732 (1988).
[Crossref]

Senior, J. M.

J. M. Senior, in Optical Fiber Communications, Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992), p. 210.

Shenfeld, O.

O. Eyal, A. Zur, O. Shenfeld, M. Gilo, A. Katzir, Opt. Eng. 33, 502 (1994).
[Crossref]

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, “Temperature monitoring of CO2 laser tissue welding in the urinary tract using silver halide fiber optic radiometry,”Laser Surg. Med. (to be published).

Simhony, S.

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3732 (1988).
[Crossref]

Zur, A.

O. Eyal, A. Zur, O. Shenfeld, M. Gilo, A. Katzir, Opt. Eng. 33, 502 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2474 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Opt. 26, 1201 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 499 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 499 (1986).
[Crossref]

A. Zur, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2474 (1988).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, F. Moser, D. Kowal, A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1083 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Gal, A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 256 (1988).
[Crossref]

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 2980 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Simhony, I. Schnitzer, A. Katzir, E. M. Kosower, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3732 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

N. Barkay, A. Katzir, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1889 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

O. Eyal, A. Zur, O. Shenfeld, M. Gilo, A. Katzir, Opt. Eng. 33, 502 (1994).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. J. Burger, D. A. Greenberg, P. Kirkitelos, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 206 (1990).

Other (4)

M. K. Barnoski, in Fundamental of Optical Fiber Communications, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), p. 334.

J. M. Senior, in Optical Fiber Communications, Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992), p. 210.

O. Shenfeld, O. Eyal, B. Goldwasser, A. Katzir, “Temperature monitoring of CO2 laser tissue welding in the urinary tract using silver halide fiber optic radiometry,”Laser Surg. Med. (to be published).

O. Eyal, A. Katzir, “Control techniques for TTL-triggered CO2 laser, used for irradiation of biological tissue, utilizing IR fiber optics,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a silver halide fiber Y coupler, (b) schematic of the silver halide Y coupler construction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup with a CO2 laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup with a blackbody.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radiometric signal versus blackbody temperature for the two channels. The dotted lines are the calculated linear regressions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Irradiation of a tissue sample by use of a silver halide Y coupler. TTL, transistor–transistor logic.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured radiometric signals of fiber and tissue (solid curve), fiber only (dashed curve), and calculated radiometric signal of the tissue (dotted curve) as functions of time.

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