Abstract

We report the results of extreme-ultraviolet reflectance measurements and structural characterization of multilayer mirrors made by sequential sputter deposition of Si and B4C. Compared with Si/Mo multilayers, Si/B4C have a much narrower bandpass (δλ) and better off-peak rejection but lower peak reflectance (R0). Mirrors with three different designs gave the following results: R0 = 0.275 and δλ = 0.31 nm at 13.1 nm and normal incidence; R0 = 0.34 and δλ = 1.1 nm at 18.2 nm and 45°; and R0 = 0.30 and δλ= 2.0 nm at 23.6 nm and 45°. These multilayers exhibited excellent stability on annealing at temperatures up to 600°C.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. A. Kerney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547,63 (1991).
  2. J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 71 (1991).
  3. J. P. Delaboudiniere, T. K. Vien, J. L. Stehle, P. Bernstein, L. Nevot, Appl. Opt. 25, 1266 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. For a recent overview of soft-x-ray projection lithography, seeTechnical Digest of Topical Meeting on Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993).
  6. B. W. Smith, J. J. Bloch, D. Roussel-Dupre, Opt. Eng. 29, 592 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. H. Skinner, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2420 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. See, for example,A. Morosov, K. Krushelnick, L. Polonsky, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, C. M. Falco, J. M. Slaughter, in Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), paper 4I5.
  10. For details of making and characterizing the 13.3- nm Si/Mo mirror, seeC. Montcalm, B. T. Sullivan, H. Pépin, J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Sutton, Appl. Opt. 33, 2057 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Vidal, P. Vincent, Appl. Opt. 23, 1794 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

For details of making and characterizing the 13.3- nm Si/Mo mirror, seeC. Montcalm, B. T. Sullivan, H. Pépin, J. A. Dobrowolski, M. Sutton, Appl. Opt. 33, 2057 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

C. H. Skinner, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Kerney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547,63 (1991).

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 71 (1991).

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

B. W. Smith, J. J. Bloch, D. Roussel-Dupre, Opt. Eng. 29, 592 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

Bernstein, P.

Bloch, J. J.

B. W. Smith, J. J. Bloch, D. Roussel-Dupre, Opt. Eng. 29, 592 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boher, P.

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Delaboudiniere, J. P.

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Delaboudiniere, T. K. Vien, J. L. Stehle, P. Bernstein, L. Nevot, Appl. Opt. 25, 1266 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Falco, C. M.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Kerney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547,63 (1991).

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 71 (1991).

See, for example,A. Morosov, K. Krushelnick, L. Polonsky, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, C. M. Falco, J. M. Slaughter, in Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), paper 4I5.

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hennet, L.

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hills, C. R.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Houdy, Ph.

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, P. A.

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 71 (1991).

Kerney, P. A.

P. A. Kerney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547,63 (1991).

Krumrey, M.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krushelnick, K.

See, for example,A. Morosov, K. Krushelnick, L. Polonsky, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, C. M. Falco, J. M. Slaughter, in Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), paper 4I5.

Kühne, M.

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. G.

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T. B.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mirone, A.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

Morosov, A.

See, for example,A. Morosov, K. Krushelnick, L. Polonsky, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, C. M. Falco, J. M. Slaughter, in Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), paper 4I5.

Mueller, P.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Müller, P.

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nevot, L.

Pépin, H.

Polonsky, L.

See, for example,A. Morosov, K. Krushelnick, L. Polonsky, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, C. M. Falco, J. M. Slaughter, in Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), paper 4I5.

Roussel-Dupre, D.

B. W. Smith, J. J. Bloch, D. Roussel-Dupre, Opt. Eng. 29, 592 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, D. W.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

C. H. Skinner, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

See, for example,A. Morosov, K. Krushelnick, L. Polonsky, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, C. M. Falco, J. M. Slaughter, in Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), paper 4I5.

Slaughter, J. M.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Kerney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547,63 (1991).

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 71 (1991).

See, for example,A. Morosov, K. Krushelnick, L. Polonsky, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, C. M. Falco, J. M. Slaughter, in Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), paper 4I5.

Smith, B. W.

B. W. Smith, J. J. Bloch, D. Roussel-Dupre, Opt. Eng. 29, 592 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stalio, R.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, M. B.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stehle, J. L.

Stith, J. H.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suckewer, S.

See, for example,A. Morosov, K. Krushelnick, L. Polonsky, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, C. M. Falco, J. M. Slaughter, in Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), paper 4I5.

Sullivan, B. T.

Sutton, M.

Tarrio, C.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, B.

Vien, T. K.

Vincent, P.

Watts, R. N.

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

For details concerning the 18.2- and 23.6-nm Si/Mo mirrors, seeJ. M. Slaughter, D. W. Schulze, C. R. Hills, A. Mirone, R. Stalio, R. N. Watts, C. Tarrio, T. B. Lucatorto, M. Krumrey, P. Mueller, C. M. Falco, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2144 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

B. W. Smith, J. J. Bloch, D. Roussel-Dupre, Opt. Eng. 29, 592 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Boher, Ph. Houdy, L. Hennet, J. P. Delaboudiniere, M. Kühne, P. Müller, Z. G. Li, D. J. Smith, Opt. Eng. 30, 1049 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids B (1)

C. H. Skinner, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

P. A. Kerney, J. M. Slaughter, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547,63 (1991).

J. M. Slaughter, P. A. Kearney, C. M. Falco, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 71 (1991).

Other (2)

For a recent overview of soft-x-ray projection lithography, seeTechnical Digest of Topical Meeting on Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993).

See, for example,A. Morosov, K. Krushelnick, L. Polonsky, C. H. Skinner, S. Suckewer, C. M. Falco, J. M. Slaughter, in Proceedings of the 4th International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), paper 4I5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectance of a Si/B4C mirror designed for 13.3 nm, measured at 5° from normal incidence. Si/Mo data are shown for comparison. The Si/B4C peak is much narrower, and the off-peak rejection of Si/B4C is considerably better. Si/B4C has R0 = 0.275 compared with R0 = 0.61 for Si/Mo.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of a Si/B4C mirror for 18.2 nm and 45°, with Si/Mo data for comparison. The Si/B4C peak is much narrower, and the off-peak rejection of Si/B4C is 1 to 2 orders-of-magnitude better. Si/B4C has R0 = 0.33 compared with R0 = 0.53 for Si/Mo.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance of a Si/B4C mirror for 23.6 nm and 45°. A calculated Si/Mo curve is shown for comparison. The Si/B4C peak is much narrower, and the off-peak rejection of Si/B4C is much better. Si/B4C has R0 = 0.30 compared with R0 = 0.39 for Si/Mo.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Constants δ = 1−n and k, Optimum Layer Thicknesses dSi and dB4C, and the number of Bilayers N for Three Mirror Designsa

Metrics