Abstract

Although a single-mode optical fiber is a convenient and efficient interface/connecting medium, it introduces phase-noise modulation, which corrupts high-precision frequency-based applications by broadening the spectrum toward the kilohertz domain. We describe a simple double-pass fiber noise measurement and control system, which is demonstrated to provide millihertz accuracy of noise cancellation.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example,Y. C. Chung, eds., Frequency- Stabilized Lasers and Their Applications, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1837 (1993).
  2. Y. Pang, J. J. Hamilton, J. P. Richard, Appl. Opt. 31, 7532 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”1992, T. W. Hdnsch, M. Inguscio, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, to be published).
  5. A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Shirley, Opt. Lett. 7, 537 (1982); L.-S. Ma, L. Hollberg, J. H. Shirley, J. L. Hall, U.S. patent4,590,597 (May20, 1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Tests of the phase-lock null point showed a maximum residual phase-noise density of ~2×10-5 rad/Hz at ~10 kHz, reducing at higher frequencies as a result of reduced phase noise from the fiber, and reducing also toward low frequencies because of the higher gain of the second-order phase-lock loop.
  8. For the best resolution it is necessary to run both rf synthesizers from the same reference for these tests, but we emphasize that, in practice, only a single crystal oscillator is needed for the AOM1 source.
  9. Approximately 0.2-μbar/Hz of pressure below 300 Hz was produced by a small heat gun (turned on cold) located 50 cm from the fiber and blowing away from it.

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. D.

A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baugher, C. R.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”1992, T. W. Hdnsch, M. Inguscio, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, to be published).

Blomberg, E. L.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Decher, R.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ely, P. B.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, J. J.

Hoffman, T. E.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”1992, T. W. Hdnsch, M. Inguscio, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, to be published).

Krisher, T. P.

A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Levine, M. W.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. T.

A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lutes, G.

A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mattison, E. M.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

Primas, L. E.

A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Richard, J. P.

Shirley, J. H.

Teuber, D. L.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Vessot, R. F. C.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Watts, J. W.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Will, C. M.

A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wills, F. D.

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”1992, T. W. Hdnsch, M. Inguscio, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, to be published).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. D (1)

A related technique measures and stabilizes the phase of an rf modulation carried by the fiber as an AM signal. This system permits precise time and rf frequency transfer via fiber. SeeT. P. Krisher, L. Maleki, G. Lutes, L. E. Primas, R. T. Logan, J. D. Anderson, C. M. Will, Phys. Rev. D 42, 731 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. F. C. Vessot, M. W. Levine, E. M. Mattison, E. L. Blomberg, T. E. Hoffman, R. Decher, P. B. Ely, C. R. Baugher, J. W. Watts, D. L. Teuber, F. D. Wills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 2081 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”1992, T. W. Hdnsch, M. Inguscio, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, to be published).

See, for example,Y. C. Chung, eds., Frequency- Stabilized Lasers and Their Applications, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1837 (1993).

Tests of the phase-lock null point showed a maximum residual phase-noise density of ~2×10-5 rad/Hz at ~10 kHz, reducing at higher frequencies as a result of reduced phase noise from the fiber, and reducing also toward low frequencies because of the higher gain of the second-order phase-lock loop.

For the best resolution it is necessary to run both rf synthesizers from the same reference for these tests, but we emphasize that, in practice, only a single crystal oscillator is needed for the AOM1 source.

Approximately 0.2-μbar/Hz of pressure below 300 Hz was produced by a small heat gun (turned on cold) located 50 cm from the fiber and blowing away from it.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frequency shifter AOM1 at a remote site is double passed, so the frequency of the returned optical beam is offset by 2Δ. In this fiber-based example, one-way momentary phase induced by the fiber is Φf, becoming 2Φf when the beam returns to the source end. The regenerated beat signal is cos{2Δt + 2Φc,}, which is frequency/phase divided by 2 and filtered to become the driving source for phase-noise compensator AOM2. With ideal phase locking, the correction phase Φc closely matches Φf, so noise cancellation is nearly perfect. Xtal VCO, voltage-controlled crystal oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical field spectrum at the output of a 25-m fiber. The input optical signal approximates a delta function. The signal arrives at the far end with a 1.2-kHz width, shown in (a). In (b) the phase-noise compensation system is operational, and one regains 99.6% of the power in the sharp spectral feature. The resolution bandwidth is 15.6 Hz. In (c) the resolution bandwidth is 0.95 mHz. The carrier is reduced by only 1.3 dB from (b) to (c) because of noise near the carrier.

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