Abstract

We report the observation of nonlinear photorefraction in pure aligned nematic liquid crystals in the presence of an applied dc electric field. The effect is attributed to nematic axis reorientation created by the photoinduced space-charge field in combination with the applied dc field. Strong optical nonlinearity, self-diffraction, and beam-coupling effects are observed.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example,P. Günter, J. P. Huignard, eds., PhotorefractiveM aterials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2.
  2. R. S. Cudney, R. M. Pierce, G. D. Bacher, D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1704 (1992); R. S. Cudney, G. D. Bacher, R. M. Pierce, J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 17,67 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991); S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. C. Khoo, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, p. 107I. C. Khoo, S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993)I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. G. Cheng, D. J. Brady, Opt. Lett. 17, 441 (1992); I. C. Khoo, H. Li, P. G. LoPresti, Yu Liang, Opt. Lett. 19, 530 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969); P. G. DeGennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 5, p. 190.
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. C. Khoo, T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991); S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

I. C. Khoo, T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969); P. G. DeGennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 5, p. 190.
[CrossRef]

Bacher, G. D.

Brady, D. J.

Cheng, A. G.

Cudney, R. S.

Cui, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dovgalenko, G.

N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991); S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G. C.

N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinberg, J.

Helfrich, W.

W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969); P. G. DeGennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 5, p. 190.
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, p. 107I. C. Khoo, S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993)I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kukhtarev, N.

N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T. H.

I. C. Khoo, T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahgerefteh, D.

Moerner, W. E.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991); S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, R. M.

Prasad, P. N.

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991); S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E. J.

N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tweig, R. J.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991); S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wechsler, B. A.

N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969); P. G. DeGennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 5, p. 190.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

I. C. Khoo, T. H. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992); Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Kukhtarev, G. Dovgalenko, G. C. Duree, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, B. A. Wechsler, M. B. Klein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71,4330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Tweig, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991); S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Tweig, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

I. C. Khoo, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988), Vol. 26, p. 107I. C. Khoo, S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993)I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

See, for example,P. Günter, J. P. Huignard, eds., PhotorefractiveM aterials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the interaction geometry in a homeotropically aligned NLC film. The dc field is applied across the transparent conducting ITO-coated windows.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observed current flow through the NLC sample. Circles, dark state; crosses, under laser illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of the transmitted inputs (± 1 beams) and their first-order self-diffractions (±3 beams): (a) Ez along the + direction, (b) Ez along the − direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the ±3 beam diffraction efficiency on the angle β. Experimental conditions: Input power in −1 beam, 11.2 mW; power in +1 beam, 8.8 mW; V = 1.5 V, Ez, along the + direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the ±3 beam diffraction efficiency on the applied dc voltage at β = 30.8, P−1 = 11.2 mW, P+1 = 8.8 mW, and Ez in the + direction.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E sc = ( E sc cos β , 0 , E sc sin β ) cos ( q χ + Δ ϕ ) ,
f E = Δ ɛ 4 π ( n ^ · E ) ( n ^ × E ) ,
Δ n e ~ ( n | | - n ) n | | n ( sin 2 β ) θ 0 ,
θ 0 ~ Δ ɛ E a E sc 16 π k cos β ( d z - z 2 ) .

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