Abstract

A gradial zone lens has the diffractive component within the bulk lens rather than as a surface-relief profile. It is constructed by spin molding annular zones from microliter volumes of monomers injected into a rotating mold. Plastic lenses have micrometer width zones with dimensions that give a phase difference of modulo 2π. A gradial lens made with flat surfaces shows a series of foci similar to those of a radially blazed grating; however, when zones are placed within a plano–convex lens, there is an additive contribution from both refractive and diffractive focusing.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris, Appl. Opt. 30, 2151 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, Photon. Spectra Mag. 3, H-365 (1992).
  3. G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” Tech. Reps. 854 and 914 (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass., 1989/1991).
  4. J. L. Bello, D. P. Hamblen, “Apparatus for fabricating GRIN lens elements by spin molding,” U.S. patent5,244,371 (September14, 1993).

1992 (1)

D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, Photon. Spectra Mag. 3, H-365 (1992).

1991 (1)

Bello, J. L.

J. L. Bello, D. P. Hamblen, “Apparatus for fabricating GRIN lens elements by spin molding,” U.S. patent5,244,371 (September14, 1993).

Buralli, D. A.

Faklis, D.

D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, Photon. Spectra Mag. 3, H-365 (1992).

Hamblen, D. P.

J. L. Bello, D. P. Hamblen, “Apparatus for fabricating GRIN lens elements by spin molding,” U.S. patent5,244,371 (September14, 1993).

Morris, G. M.

D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, Photon. Spectra Mag. 3, H-365 (1992).

D. A. Buralli, G. M. Morris, Appl. Opt. 30, 2151 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” Tech. Reps. 854 and 914 (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass., 1989/1991).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Photon. Spectra Mag. (1)

D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, in The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook, Photon. Spectra Mag. 3, H-365 (1992).

Other (2)

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” Tech. Reps. 854 and 914 (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass., 1989/1991).

J. L. Bello, D. P. Hamblen, “Apparatus for fabricating GRIN lens elements by spin molding,” U.S. patent5,244,371 (September14, 1993).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative gradial zone lens with its central area optically opaque for blocking paraxial rays during focal testing (magnification 30×).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of a star-sector target taken at the primary focus of a diffractive disk lens. Focus occurs within the shadow region formed by the central obstruction. Spurious diffraction is caused by laser illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional view of a gradial disk lens, showing alternating annular zones. One obtains equal light ray paths for a modulo 2π phase change at each zone by making the back lens surface slightly parabolic.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η N = [ n sin ( π / n ) π ] 2 .
N s = 1 s 2 π λ 0 + N 2 t t ,             s = 2 , 3 , 4 , .
t i = 1 N 2 ( N 1 t 0 - n i λ 0 2 ) , i = 2 , 4 , 6 , ( alternate zones ) ,
r i = F tan [ arccos ( F F + n i λ 0 2 ) ]

Metrics