Abstract

Light scattering from a laser-induced thermal grating produced in an atmospheric-pressure H2/O2 flame is observed with a phase-matching geometry commonly used in resonant four-wave mixing and laser-induced grating spectroscopy. The presence of thermal gratings is confirmed in both the time and the frequency domains in two distinct experiments. Diluting the flame with helium decreases the thermal grating signal intensity. Experimental results agree well with calculations based on a solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Trebino, E. K. Gustafson, A. E. Siegman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1295 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Eichler, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3429 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. 72, 371 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 250 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. E. Govoni, J. A. Booze, A. Sinha, F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 216, 525 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. E. M. Goldsmith, in 20th Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1984), p. 1331.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  10. H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, in Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), Chap. 4, p. 94.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

D. E. Govoni, J. A. Booze, A. Sinha, F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 216, 525 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. 72, 371 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 250 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

H. Eichler, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3429 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, R. L.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

Booze, J. A.

D. E. Govoni, J. A. Booze, A. Sinha, F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 216, 525 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. S.

Casalegno, R.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. 72, 371 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Coltrin, M. E.

R. J. Kee, G. Dixon-Lewis, J. Warnatz, M. E. Coltrin, J. A. Miller, “A Fortran computer code for the evaluation of gas-phase multicomponent transport properties,” Rep. Sand86-8246.UC-32 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1986).

Crim, F. F.

D. E. Govoni, J. A. Booze, A. Sinha, F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 216, 525 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dixon-Lewis, G.

R. J. Kee, G. Dixon-Lewis, J. Warnatz, M. E. Coltrin, J. A. Miller, “A Fortran computer code for the evaluation of gas-phase multicomponent transport properties,” Rep. Sand86-8246.UC-32 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1986).

Dreier, T.

Eichler, H.

H. Eichler, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3429 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, in Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), Chap. 4, p. 94.

Fayer, M. D.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. 72, 371 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, in 20th Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1984), p. 1331.

Govoni, D. E.

D. E. Govoni, J. A. Booze, A. Sinha, F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 216, 525 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, in Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), Chap. 4, p. 94.

Gustafson, E. K.

Kee, R. J.

R. J. Kee, G. Dixon-Lewis, J. Warnatz, M. E. Coltrin, J. A. Miller, “A Fortran computer code for the evaluation of gas-phase multicomponent transport properties,” Rep. Sand86-8246.UC-32 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1986).

Lam, J. F.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

Liao, P. F.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

Lind, R. C.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

Miller, J. A.

R. J. Kee, G. Dixon-Lewis, J. Warnatz, M. E. Coltrin, J. A. Miller, “A Fortran computer code for the evaluation of gas-phase multicomponent transport properties,” Rep. Sand86-8246.UC-32 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1986).

Miller, R. J. D.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. 72, 371 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. 72, 371 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, in Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), Chap. 4, p. 94.

Rahn, L. A.

Salcedo, J. R.

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 250 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

R. Trebino, E. K. Gustafson, A. E. Siegman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1295 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 250 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, A.

D. E. Govoni, J. A. Booze, A. Sinha, F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 216, 525 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, H.

H. Eichler, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3429 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

Trebino, R.

Warnatz, J.

R. J. Kee, G. Dixon-Lewis, J. Warnatz, M. E. Coltrin, J. A. Miller, “A Fortran computer code for the evaluation of gas-phase multicomponent transport properties,” Rep. Sand86-8246.UC-32 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1986).

Chem. Phys. (1)

R. J. D. Miller, R. Casalegno, K. A. Nelson, M. D. Fayer, Chem. Phys. 72, 371 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. E. Govoni, J. A. Booze, A. Sinha, F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 216, 525 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. R. Salcedo, A. E. Siegman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 250 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Eichler, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3429 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

J. E. M. Goldsmith, in 20th Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1984), p. 1331.

R. J. Kee, G. Dixon-Lewis, J. Warnatz, M. E. Coltrin, J. A. Miller, “A Fortran computer code for the evaluation of gas-phase multicomponent transport properties,” Rep. Sand86-8246.UC-32 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1986).

R. L. Abrams, J. F. Lam, R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, P. F. Liao, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), Chap. 8, p. 211.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, in Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), Chap. 4, p. 94.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thermal grating time dependence. Scattered light intensity of E4 versus time delay of E3 with respect to E1 and E2 . Time t0 = 0 corresponds to the rising edge of the UV laser pulses. The dashed-dotted and solid curves are the results of full calculations with the one- and two-step mechanisms, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermal grating spectral dependence. Scattered light intensity of E4 versus spectral shift of E2 relative to E1 and E3. X and Y denote orthogonal linear polarization states, and the polarization of the fields is given in the order E4E1E3E2 . The grating spacing for all spectra is Λ = 5.9 ± 0.3 μm. The solid curves are only a guide to the eye.

Equations (3)

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I 4 { [ exp ( - t / τ th ) + A exp ( - t / τ ac ) × cos ( 2 π f ac t + ϕ ) ] * [ L ( t ) * Z ( t ) ] } 2 ,
τ th - Λ 2 P r / 4 π 2 ν ,
τ ac = ( γ - 1 + 4 P r / 3 ) Λ 2 Pr / 2 π 2 ν .

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