Abstract

Using degenerate four-wave mixing in an Fe:LiNbO3 0.04-wt. % crystal and an external-reflection near-field optical microscope, we have achieved phase conjugation of light emitted by a fiber tip. We observe that the phase-conjugated light at a wavelength of 633 nm can reach a power of ~0.1 nW and produce a 180-nm-wide spot image in the near-field microscope. This is the first direct demonstration, to our knowledge, of the phase conjugation of near-field components of optical fields.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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1994

1993

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, O. Keller, M. Xiao, Appl. Opt. 32, 4864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992); R. Kopelman, W. Tan, D. Birnbaum, J. Lumin. 58, 380 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Bochove, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 266 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1988

R. J. Cook, P. W. Milonni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1383 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

1982

G. S. Agarwal, Opt. Commun. 42, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal, Opt. Commun. 42, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 157–178.

Berntsen, S.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992); R. Kopelman, W. Tan, D. Birnbaum, J. Lumin. 58, 380 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bochove, E. J.

Bozhevolnaya, E.

Bozhevolnyi, S.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Cook, R. J.

R. J. Cook, P. W. Milonni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1383 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

Feinberg, J.

J. Feinberg, K. R. MacDonald, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 151–203.
[CrossRef]

Keller, O.

Leblanc, S.

Lewis, A.

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, K.

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. R.

J. Feinberg, K. R. MacDonald, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 151–203.
[CrossRef]

Milonni, P. W.

R. J. Cook, P. W. Milonni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1383 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Odoulov, S. G.

S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 5–43.
[CrossRef]

Rudman, M.

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sarayeddine, K.

Shchemelin, A.

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 5–43.
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992); R. Kopelman, W. Tan, D. Birnbaum, J. Lumin. 58, 380 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Labeke, D.

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 157–178.

Vigoureux, J.-M.

Wolf, E.

Xiao, M.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. J. Cook, P. W. Milonni, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1383 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

G. S. Agarwal, Opt. Commun. 42, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992); R. Kopelman, W. Tan, D. Birnbaum, J. Lumin. 58, 380 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. Van Labeke, D. Barchiesi, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl, D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 157–178.

J. Feinberg, K. R. MacDonald, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 151–203.
[CrossRef]

S. G. Odoulov, M. S. Soskin, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Vol. 62 of Springer Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 5–43.
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, Vol. 61 of Springer Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), pp. 7–73.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for studying near-field phase conjugation: LS, laser source; BS’s, beam splitters; S1,2, shutters; O, objective; OF, optical fiber; PT, piezoelectric translator; RC, reflective coating of a crystal facet (axis c points in the optical axis direction); PMT, photomultiplier tube; M’s, mirrors; L, lens. The polarization of the light is perpendicular to the figure plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time dependencies of the phase-conjugated (PC) reflected light power measured for tip-surface distances of ~5 nm (curve 1) and ~1 μm (curve 2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (c) Gray-scale near-field optical and (b), (d) topographical images of 2 μm × 2 μm of the sample surface taken (a), (b) before and (c), (d) after exposure The maximum depth of the topographical images is 115 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gray-scale optical images of 2 μm × 2 μm of the sample surface taken at a tip–surface distance of ~1 μm (a) before and (b) after exposure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Averaged distributions (curves 1 and 2) of the phase-conjugated light power across the spot images presented in Figs. 3(c) and 4(b), respectively.

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