Abstract

We describe how two-wave mixing of light scattered at the entrance face of a photorefractive crystal can be used to measure the frequency difference between two independent lasers. This method can be used to accomplish initial frequency acquisition in coherent optical homodyne receivers.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Nguyen, R. Sanchez, T. K. Gustafson, T. K. Yee, R. Neurgaonkar, Opt. Lett. 16, 1811 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. E. Adams, R. S. Bondurant, Opt. Lett. 16, 832 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. M. Davidson, C. Field, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1295 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. E. Adams, R. S. Bondurant, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 88.
  5. F. Davidson, C. T. Field, “Optical phase lock loop with a photorefractive optical beam combiner,”IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).
  6. G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Abdelghani-Idrissi, C. Ozkul, N. Wolffer, P. Gravey, G. Picoli, Opt. Commun. 86, 317 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. M. Davidson, C. Field, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1295 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

1989 (1)

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Abdelghani-Idrissi, A.

A. Abdelghani-Idrissi, C. Ozkul, N. Wolffer, P. Gravey, G. Picoli, Opt. Commun. 86, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adams, L. E.

L. E. Adams, R. S. Bondurant, Opt. Lett. 16, 832 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Adams, R. S. Bondurant, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 88.

Bondurant, R. S.

L. E. Adams, R. S. Bondurant, Opt. Lett. 16, 832 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Adams, R. S. Bondurant, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 88.

Davidson, F.

F. Davidson, C. T. Field, “Optical phase lock loop with a photorefractive optical beam combiner,”IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Davidson, F. M.

F. M. Davidson, C. Field, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1295 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Field, C.

F. M. Davidson, C. Field, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1295 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Field, C. T.

F. Davidson, C. T. Field, “Optical phase lock loop with a photorefractive optical beam combiner,”IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Gravey, P.

A. Abdelghani-Idrissi, C. Ozkul, N. Wolffer, P. Gravey, G. Picoli, Opt. Commun. 86, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, T. K.

Neurgaonkar, R.

Nguyen, K.

Ozkul, C.

A. Abdelghani-Idrissi, C. Ozkul, N. Wolffer, P. Gravey, G. Picoli, Opt. Commun. 86, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Picoli, G.

A. Abdelghani-Idrissi, C. Ozkul, N. Wolffer, P. Gravey, G. Picoli, Opt. Commun. 86, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, R.

Vieux, V.

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wolffer, N.

A. Abdelghani-Idrissi, C. Ozkul, N. Wolffer, P. Gravey, G. Picoli, Opt. Commun. 86, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yee, T. K.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. M. Davidson, C. Field, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1295 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Picoli, P. Gravey, C. Ozkul, V. Vieux, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Abdelghani-Idrissi, C. Ozkul, N. Wolffer, P. Gravey, G. Picoli, Opt. Commun. 86, 317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

L. E. Adams, R. S. Bondurant, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 88.

F. Davidson, C. T. Field, “Optical phase lock loop with a photorefractive optical beam combiner,”IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup for difference-frequency measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electrical power at the optical difference frequency as a function of optical signal power transmitted through the crystal. Shown are the beat signal power with and without photorefractive coupling, the peak level of the noise floor, and the average power of the noise floor. Photorefractive coupling increased the beat signal by more than 10 dB. For all optical signal levels greater than 3 nW, the beat signal is more than 20 dB above the average noise floor. The solid lines are least-squares fits to the data.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E s ( r ˆ , t ) = A s ( r ˆ ) exp [ j ( ω s t k ˆ s r ˆ ) ] + c . c . ,
E p ( r ˆ , t ) = A p ( r ˆ ) exp [ j ( ω p t k ˆ p r ˆ ) ] + c . c . ,
A p z = Γ p , pd A p A pd A pd * 2 I o ,
A pd z = Γ p , pd A pd A p A p * 2 I o ,
A s z = Γ s , sd A s A sd A sd * 2 I o ,
A sd z = Γ s , sd A sd A s A s * 2 I o ,
A sd ( z ) = A sd ( 0 ) exp [ ( Γ s , sd ) d I s / 2 I o ] ,
A pd ( z ) = A pd ( 0 ) exp [ ( Γ p , pd ) d I p / 2 I o ] ,
A sd ( z ) A sd ( 0 ) ,
A pd ( z ) = A pd ( 0 ) exp [ ( Γ p , pd ) d / 2 ] .
I d ( r ˆ ) = | A s ( 0 ) exp [ j ( ω s t k ˆ s r ˆ ) ] + A p ( 0 ) exp ( dT p , pd / 2 ) exp [ j ( ω p t k ˆ pd r ˆ ) ] | 2 ,
= I s ( 0 ) + I pd ( 0 ) exp ( d Γ p , pd ) + 2 I s ( 0 ) I pd ( 0 ) × exp ( d Γ p , pd / 2 ) cos [ ( ω s ω p ) t + r ˆ ( k ˆ s k ˆ pd ) ] .
i d ( t ) = qG η h ν [ I s + I pd + 2 η m I s I pd cos ( ω s ω p ) t ] ,
SNR = 2 η m 2 η 2 I s I pd / h ν [ F η ( I s + I pd ) + TN ] 2 B ,
TN = 2 K B T R L q 2 G 2 / h ν ,

Metrics