Abstract

We have observed a frequency shift in the output signal pulses relative to the seed frequency in an injection-seeded, singly resonant, critically phase-matched, pulsed optical parametric oscillator in which phase mismatch was intentionally introduced. The observed shifts can be large compared with the linewidth of the signal pulse, are approximately linear in phase mismatch, and increase with increasing pump fluence. We observe frequency shifts of as much as ±400 MHz for our 532-nm-pumped, potassium titanyl phosphate ring optical parametric oscillator. For zero phase mismatch, we observe nearly transform-limited linewidths of less than 130 MHz. We compare the experimental data to a simple analytic model that overestimates the shifts because it ignores pump depletion. We also compare our measurements with a numerical model that calculates the two-dimensional, transient electric fields and the resultant spectral distributions while explicitly including walk-off, diffraction, and pump depletion. We find good agreement between the experimental data and the results of this model.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K K. Lehmann, Opt. Commun, 86, 294 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. P. Barnes, K E. Murray, G. H. Watson, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 356.
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    [CrossRef]
  8. C. E. Hamilton, W. R. Bosenberg, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 370.
  9. L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, R. L. Burnham, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 338.
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    [CrossRef]
  11. R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed., Vol. 16 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), p. 97.
  12. R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 18, 194 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. S. Bowers, A. V. Smith, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 471.

1993 (2)

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 18, 194 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

J. G. Haub, M. J Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K K. Lehmann, Opt. Commun, 86, 294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aytur, O.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, R. L. Burnham, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 338.

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, K E. Murray, G. H. Watson, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 356.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

C. E. Hamilton, W. R. Bosenberg, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 370.

Bowers, M. S.

M. S. Bowers, A. V. Smith, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 471.

Brosnan, S. J.

S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. L.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, R. L. Burnham, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 338.

Byer, R. L.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed., Vol. 16 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), p. 97.

Danielmeyer, H. G.

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

Eckardt, R. C.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hamilton, C. E.

C. E. Hamilton, W. R. Bosenberg, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 370.

Haub, J. G.

J. G. Haub, M. J Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, R. L.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed., Vol. 16 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), p. 97.

Hovde, D. C.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K K. Lehmann, Opt. Commun, 86, 294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huisken, F.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. J

J. G. Haub, M. J Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaz, A.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, R. L. Burnham, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 338.

Kulcke, A.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laush, C.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, K K.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K K. Lehmann, Opt. Commun, 86, 294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lisy, J. M.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, L. R.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, R. L. Burnham, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 338.

Murray, K E.

N. P. Barnes, K E. Murray, G. H. Watson, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 356.

Nolting, J.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

J. G. Haub, M. J Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. K.

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Scoles, G.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K K. Lehmann, Opt. Commun, 86, 294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Smith, A. V.

M. S. Bowers, A. V. Smith, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 471.

Timmermans, J. H.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K K. Lehmann, Opt. Commun, 86, 294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Voelkel, D.

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

J. G. Haub, M. J Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Watson, G. H.

N. P. Barnes, K E. Murray, G. H. Watson, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 356.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Huisken, A. Kulcke, D. Voelkel, C. Laush, J. M. Lisy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 805 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Haub, M. J Johnson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. K. Park, G. Giuliani, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 117 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun, (1)

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, K K. Lehmann, Opt. Commun, 86, 294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

M. S. Bowers, A. V. Smith, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan, B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 471.

N. P. Barnes, K E. Murray, G. H. Watson, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 356.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed., Vol. 16 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), p. 97.

C. E. Hamilton, W. R. Bosenberg, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 370.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, O. Aytur, R. L. Burnham, in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase, A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 338.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental layout: the seed and pulsed signal outputs from the OPO are analyzed with a high-finesse étalon. Photodiode PD1 is sensitive primarily to the seed beam, and photodiode PD2 detects the pulsed signal beam from the OPO. PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured frequency shifts (filled circles) as a function of phase mismatch for peak pump fluences of (a) 1.6 J/cm2 and (b) 2.5 J/cm2. The solid curves represent the shifts calculated with the numerical model described in the text, and the dashed curves represent the shifts calculated with the analytic model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral and temporal (insets) profiles for the output signal pulse when ΔkL = 0 and the peak pump fluence is (a) 1.6 J/cm2 and (b) 2.5 J/cm2. The dots are experimentally measured results, the solid curves are results from the numerical model, and the dashed curves are transforms of the temporal data assuming a constant phase.

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