Abstract

Spectroscopic measurements on 4F3/24I11/2 and 4F3/24I9/2 transitions for a Nd3+-doped fiber laser demonstrated that the wavelength dependence of the relaxation oscillations provides a simple method to distinguish three-and four-level transition. Spectral analysis of relaxation oscillations in a tunable Er3+-doped fiber laser was performed at liquid-nitrogen temperature, and results were compared with measurements at room temperature. It was found that the relaxation oscillation frequency depends on the occupation of the terminal level and thus is directly related to the absorption cross section. Using this method, we show that laser transitions at λ > 1555 nm become four-level at T = 77 K.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. L. Goldenstein, V. da Silva, L. Eskildsen, M. Adrejco, Y. Silberberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 543 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, K. Nakamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 261 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 15, 547 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Desurvire, J. W. Sulhoff, J. L. Zyskind, J. R. Simpson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 653 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. G. Okhotnikov, V. V. Kuzmin, J. R. Salcedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (1)

O. G. Okhotnikov, V. V. Kuzmin, J. R. Salcedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. L. Goldenstein, V. da Silva, L. Eskildsen, M. Adrejco, Y. Silberberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 543 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, K. Nakamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 15, 547 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Desurvire, J. W. Sulhoff, J. L. Zyskind, J. R. Simpson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adrejco, M.

E. L. Goldenstein, V. da Silva, L. Eskildsen, M. Adrejco, Y. Silberberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 543 (1993).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, V.

E. L. Goldenstein, V. da Silva, L. Eskildsen, M. Adrejco, Y. Silberberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 543 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 15, 547 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Desurvire, J. W. Sulhoff, J. L. Zyskind, J. R. Simpson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eskildsen, L.

E. L. Goldenstein, V. da Silva, L. Eskildsen, M. Adrejco, Y. Silberberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 543 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goldenstein, E. L.

E. L. Goldenstein, V. da Silva, L. Eskildsen, M. Adrejco, Y. Silberberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 543 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kagi, N.

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, K. Nakamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, V. V.

O. G. Okhotnikov, V. V. Kuzmin, J. R. Salcedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, K. Nakamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

O. G. Okhotnikov, V. V. Kuzmin, J. R. Salcedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oyobe, A.

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, K. Nakamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salcedo, J. R.

O. G. Okhotnikov, V. V. Kuzmin, J. R. Salcedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

E. L. Goldenstein, V. da Silva, L. Eskildsen, M. Adrejco, Y. Silberberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 543 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

E. Desurvire, J. W. Sulhoff, J. L. Zyskind, J. R. Simpson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 15, 547 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulhoff, J. W.

E. Desurvire, J. W. Sulhoff, J. L. Zyskind, J. R. Simpson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

E. Desurvire, J. W. Sulhoff, J. L. Zyskind, J. R. Simpson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

E. L. Goldenstein, V. da Silva, L. Eskildsen, M. Adrejco, Y. Silberberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 543 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, J. W. Sulhoff, J. L. Zyskind, J. R. Simpson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Okhotnikov, V. V. Kuzmin, J. R. Salcedo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 362 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

N. Kagi, A. Oyobe, K. Nakamura, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 261 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Typical transient oscillations from an Er3+-doped fiber laser. Pumping rate, r − 1 = 5; λ = 1550 nm, 0.1 ms/division.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(ωrelax/2π)2 versus normalized pumping rate with the lasing wavelength as a parameter for (a) the 4F3/24I11/2 transition and (b) the 4F3/24I9/2 transition of the Nd3+-doped fiber laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(ωrelax/2π)2 versus normalized pumping rate with the lasing wavelength as a parameter for (a) T = 297K and (b) T = 77K for the Er3+-doped fiber laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelength dependence of the relaxation oscillation parameter k derived from the plots presented in Fig. 3 and of the absorption spectrum at (a) T = 297 K and (b) T = 77 K.

Equations (1)

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( ω relax ) 2 = 1 τ c τ s ( 1 + k ) ( r 1 ) ,

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