Abstract

We report an unusually large birefringence modulation in fiber-optic phase modulators formed with cylindrical piezoelectric transducers when driven at a few hundred kilohertz. The magnitude of the birefringence modulation is a strong function of modulation frequency. A simple model is used to explain the phenomenon, and the theoretical predictions agree well with the experimental results.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. E. N. Davies, S. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 10, 21 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 11, 453 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 6, 502 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. A. Jackson, R. Priest, A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, Appl. Opt. 19, 2926 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Ulrich, S. C. Rashleigh, Opt. Lett. 5, 273 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. C. Rashleigh, R. Ulrich, Opt. Lett. 5, 354 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. D. Kersey, K. H. Wanser, M. A. Davis, in Proceedings of the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), p. 292.
  8. M. Y. Jeon, H. J. Jeong, B. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 18, 320 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Böhm, P. Marten, E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 19, 997 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. C. Gazis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 30, 786 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Flax, J. H. Cole, R. P. De Paula, J. A. Bucaro, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1159 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, London, 1979), Chap. 13, p. 235.

1993

1983

K. Böhm, P. Marten, E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 19, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

1981

1980

1975

S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 11, 453 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

D. E. N. Davies, S. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 10, 21 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1958

D. C. Gazis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 30, 786 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, R. A.

Böhm, K.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 19, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

Cole, J. H.

Dandridge, A.

Davies, D. E. N.

D. E. N. Davies, S. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 10, 21 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, K. H. Wanser, M. A. Davis, in Proceedings of the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), p. 292.

De Paula, R. P.

Flax, L.

Gazis, D. C.

D. C. Gazis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 30, 786 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

Jeon, M. Y.

Jeong, H. J.

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, K. H. Wanser, M. A. Davis, in Proceedings of the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), p. 292.

Kim, B. Y.

Kingsley, S.

D. E. N. Davies, S. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 10, 21 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kingsley, S. A.

S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 11, 453 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre, H. C.

Marten, P.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 19, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, London, 1979), Chap. 13, p. 235.

Priest, R.

Rashleigh, S. C.

Shaw, H. J.

Tveten, A. B.

Ulrich, R.

Wanser, K. H.

A. D. Kersey, K. H. Wanser, M. A. Davis, in Proceedings of the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), p. 292.

Weidel, E.

K. Böhm, P. Marten, E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 19, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

D. E. N. Davies, S. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 10, 21 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 11, 453 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Böhm, P. Marten, E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 19, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

D. C. Gazis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 30, 786 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, London, 1979), Chap. 13, p. 235.

A. D. Kersey, K. H. Wanser, M. A. Davis, in Proceedings of the Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1992), p. 292.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the measurement of birefringence modulation. DC1, 50/50 fused coupler; DC2, polished tunable coupler; PC1, PC2, polarization controllers; POL, polarizer; SMF, single-mode fiber; PM, cylindrical PZT phase modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Frequency dependence of the normalized birefringence modulation 2(ϕϕ)/(ϕ + ϕ) for several piezoelectric cylinders with different radii. The solid curves are theoretical predictions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross section of a fiber in contact with a PZT.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency dependence of the strain ratios ′/3 and ′/3.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u = φ + × A ,
φ = A n J n ( k 1 r ) cos ( n θ ) exp ( i ω t ) , A = z ^ B n J n ( k 1 r ) sin ( n θ ) exp ( i ω t ) , r a ; φ = [ C n J n ( k 2 r ) + D n N n ( k 2 r ) ] cos ( n θ ) exp ( i ω t ) , A = z ^ [ E n J n ( k 2 r ) + F n N n ( k 2 r ) ] sin ( n θ ) exp ( i ω t ) , a < r d .
i = i ν 3 , i = or  | | ,
ϕ = k 0 n l 0 [ 3 n 2 2 ( p 11 + p 12 | | + p 12 3 ) ] , ϕ | | = k 0 n l 0 [ 3 n 2 2 ( p 11 | | + p 12 + p 12 3 ) ] .
ϕ ϕ | | = ½ k 0 l 0 n 3 ( p 12 p 11 ) ( | | ) ,

Metrics