Abstract

The wavelength-dependent refractive index of a bacteriorhodopsin thin film is measured by the use of a modified critical-angle technique. The effect of the host bovine skin gelatin on the refractive index is analyzed. The measured data on the thin film can be useful for system applications. The methods and procedures are generally applicable to any optically absorbing thin films.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Oseterhelt, C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. R. Birge, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 106, 293 (1990)
  3. Q. W. Song, C. P. Zhang, R. Gross, R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 18, 775 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. Werner, B. Fischer, A. Lewis, Opt. Lett. 17, 241 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. Hunderi, Appl. Opt. 111572 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 235 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. Traub, H. Osterberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 62 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. A. Azzam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 959 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. E. Anderson, A. J. Lightman, Appl. Opt. 30, 3792 (1991)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. P. Herman, Appl. Opt. 19, 3261 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1986), Chap. II, p. 92; Chap. XIII, p. 628.
  12. R. R. Birge, C. M. Einterz, H. M. Knapp, L. P. Murray, Biophys. J. 53, 367 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 187 (1992).
  14. D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. E. Nielsen, Predicting the Properties of Mixture (Dekker, New York, 1978), Chap. 1, p. 5.
  16. J. C. Maxwel-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. T. O’Kondki, J. Phys. Chem. 64, 605 (1960).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

O. Werner, B. Fischer, A. Lewis, Opt. Lett. 17, 241 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 187 (1992).

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

R. E. Anderson, A. J. Lightman, Appl. Opt. 30, 3792 (1991)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oseterhelt, C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. R. Birge, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 106, 293 (1990)

1988 (1)

R. R. Birge, C. M. Einterz, H. M. Knapp, L. P. Murray, Biophys. J. 53, 367 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

1972 (1)

1960 (1)

C. T. O’Kondki, J. Phys. Chem. 64, 605 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

1939 (1)

1904 (1)

J. C. Maxwel-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. E.

Azzam, R. M. A.

Birge, R.

Birge, R. R.

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 187 (1992).

R. R. Birge, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 106, 293 (1990)

R. R. Birge, C. M. Einterz, H. M. Knapp, L. P. Murray, Biophys. J. 53, 367 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1986), Chap. II, p. 92; Chap. XIII, p. 628.

Brauchle, C.

D. Oseterhelt, C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Can Izgi, K.

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 187 (1992).

Einterz, C. M.

R. R. Birge, C. M. Einterz, H. M. Knapp, L. P. Murray, Biophys. J. 53, 367 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

Gross, R.

Gross, R. B.

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 187 (1992).

Hampp, N.

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Oseterhelt, C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. P.

Hunderi, O.

Knapp, H. M.

R. R. Birge, C. M. Einterz, H. M. Knapp, L. P. Murray, Biophys. J. 53, 367 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

Lightman, A. J.

Maxwel-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwel-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Murray, L. P.

R. R. Birge, C. M. Einterz, H. M. Knapp, L. P. Murray, Biophys. J. 53, 367 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, L. E.

L. E. Nielsen, Predicting the Properties of Mixture (Dekker, New York, 1978), Chap. 1, p. 5.

O’Kondki, C. T.

C. T. O’Kondki, J. Phys. Chem. 64, 605 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Oseterhelt, D.

D. Oseterhelt, C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Osterberg, H.

Song, Q. W.

Tousey, R.

Traub, A. C.

Werner, O.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1986), Chap. II, p. 92; Chap. XIII, p. 628.

Zeisel, D.

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. P.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biochem. Biophys. Acta (1)

R. R. Birge, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 106, 293 (1990)

Biophys. J. (1)

R. R. Birge, C. M. Einterz, H. M. Knapp, L. P. Murray, Biophys. J. 53, 367 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

D. Zeisel, N. Hampp, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7788 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. T. O’Kondki, J. Phys. Chem. 64, 605 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

J. C. Maxwel-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. B. Gross, K. Can Izgi, R. R. Birge, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1662, 187 (1992).

Q. Rev. Biophys. (1)

D. Oseterhelt, C. Brauchle, N. Hampp, Q. Rev. Biophys. 24, 425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. E. Nielsen, Predicting the Properties of Mixture (Dekker, New York, 1978), Chap. 1, p. 5.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1986), Chap. II, p. 92; Chap. XIII, p. 628.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for measuring the refractive index of a bR film.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental data: a, measured reflection power from the prism bR interface as a function of angle of incidence; b, the derivative of curve a.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive index of a bR film versus wavelength.

Equations (3)

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n 2 = n 1 sin [ β ± arcsin ( n a n 1 sin δ c ) ] ,
n = q 2 n 2 + q 3 n 3 ,
n 2 = n + q 3 Δ n .

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