Abstract

A holographic method was used to write refractive-index gratings in ZBLAN fluoroziroconate glasses or fibers doped by a Ce concentration of 5000 or 10,000 parts-in-106 weight. Direct pumping of the 2F5/2–5d transitions of Ce3+ ions near 245 nm resulted in a change in the refractive index. The photoinduced change partly recovered on a time scale of several hours at room temperature. The remaining change in the refractive index looked stable on a time scale of a month. This permanent change reaches 2 × 10−5 at 1560 nm.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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1993 (1)

1992 (1)

H. Tobben, Electron. Lett. 28, 1361 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. M. Broer, R. L. Cone, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1391 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[Crossref]

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, Electron. Lett. 26, 730 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. GlennOpt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. France, M. C. Brierley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 65 (1989).

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 25, 28 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. C. Brierley, P. W. France, Electron. Lett. 23, 815 (1987).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243 (1975).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 25, 28 (1989).
[Crossref]

Armitage, J. R.

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, Electron. Lett. 26, 730 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bayon, J. F.

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bernage, P.

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

Brierley, M. C.

P. W. France, M. C. Brierley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 65 (1989).

M. C. Brierley, P. W. France, Electron. Lett. 23, 815 (1987).
[Crossref]

Broer, M. M.

Canon, S.

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

Carter, S. F.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, M. J. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, J. V. Wright, in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990).
[Crossref]

Cone, R. L.

Davey, S. T.

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, Electron. Lett. 26, 730 (1990).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

Douay, M.

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

Drexhage, M. G.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, M. J. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, J. V. Wright, in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990).
[Crossref]

Fertein, E.

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

France, P. W.

P. W. France, M. C. Brierley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 65 (1989).

M. C. Brierley, P. W. France, Electron. Lett. 23, 815 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, M. J. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, J. V. Wright, in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990).
[Crossref]

Georges, T.

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

Glenn, W. H.

Hand, D. P.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, Electron. Lett. 26, 730 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Legoubin, S.

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lucas, J.

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243 (1975).
[Crossref]

Meltz, G.

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 25, 28 (1989).
[Crossref]

Moore, M. W.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, M. J. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, J. V. Wright, in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990).
[Crossref]

Morey, W. W.

Niay, P.

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

Parker, M. J.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, M. J. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, J. V. Wright, in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 25, 28 (1989).
[Crossref]

H. Poignant, in Halide Glasses for Infrared Fiber Optics, R. M. Almeida, ed. (Nijhoff, Amsterdam, 1987), p. 35

Poulain, M.

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243 (1975).
[Crossref]

Simpson, J. R.

Tobben, H.

H. Tobben, Electron. Lett. 28, 1361 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wells, P. J.

Williams, D. L.

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, Electron. Lett. 26, 730 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wright, J. V.

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, M. J. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, J. V. Wright, in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, R.

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, Electron. Lett. 26, 730 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Electron. Lett. (6)

R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, Electron. Lett. 26, 730 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. C. Brierley, P. W. France, Electron. Lett. 23, 815 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 25, 28 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 261 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. Tobben, Electron. Lett. 28, 1361 (1992).
[Crossref]

E. Fertein, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, S. Canon, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, Electron. Lett. 27, 1838 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mat. Res. Bull. (1)

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243 (1975).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

P. W. France, M. C. Brierley, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 65 (1989).

Other (2)

H. Poignant, in Halide Glasses for Infrared Fiber Optics, R. M. Almeida, ed. (Nijhoff, Amsterdam, 1987), p. 35

P. W. France, M. G. Drexhage, M. J. Parker, M. W. Moore, S. F. Carter, J. V. Wright, in Fluoride Glass Optical Fibres (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

UV absorption spectra of two Ce-doped ZBLAN plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of spectral characteristics (reflectance, Bragg wavelength) of a grating as a function of time in the curse of its inscription if a ZBLAN fiber (λp = 246 nm, fluence per pulse 130 mJ/cm2, frequency rate 20 Hz, length of the grating 10.3 mm, Bragg wavelength 1560 nm, the fiber is doped by a Ce concentration of 10,000 ppm). The spectral shift corresponds to the wavelength difference between the Bragg wavelength and a reference wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectrum of a grating written by 2 5 × 105 pulses at 130 mJ/cm2 in a ZBLAN fiber. The grating length is 10.3 mm. The spectrum was recorded one day after the end of the inscription of the grating.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Typical Results Obtained One Month after Bragg Gratings Were Written on a 100-μm-Thick Plate by 2 × 105 Pulsesa

Equations (5)

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sin θ e max = λ / 2 Λ .
η = I 1 / I 0 ,
Δ n ( z ) = Δ n ( 1 + cos 2 π z Λ ) ,             0 x e .
η = I 1 I 0 = sin 2 ( π Δ n e λ cos θ i ) ,             n sin θ i = sin θ e max ,
R = tanh 2 [ π Δ n η ( V ) L λ B ] ,

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