Abstract

An in situ birefringence measurement in conjunction with an atomic force microscope study shows that the geometric asymmetry of the side-writing process is a major cause of the induced birefringence in grating-based fiber devices. Measured refractive-index profiles of UV-exposed fibers clearly show the asymmetry in the induced index change. We demonstrate the use of a dual-exposure technique for producing low-birefringence devices.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, K. S. Kranz, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 47–48.
  2. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.
  4. D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 335–337.
  5. V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y.-K. Park, J.-M. Delaveaux, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett 18, 1976 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, “Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers,”; J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
  8. Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, “Characterization of the light guiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.
  9. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1773 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (2)

V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y.-K. Park, J.-M. Delaveaux, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett 18, 1976 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1773 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Abe, M.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.

Albert, J.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 335–337.

Atkins, R. M.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y.-K. Park, J.-M. Delaveaux, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1773 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett 18, 1976 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.

Delaveaux, J.-M.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y.-K. Park, J.-M. Delaveaux, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y.-K. Park, J.-M. Delaveaux, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 335–337.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, “Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers,”; J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Glenn, W. H.

Grubb, S. G.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y.-K. Park, J.-M. Delaveaux, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.

Inniss, D.

Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, “Characterization of the light guiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.

Kawachi, M.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.

Kranz, K. S.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, K. S. Kranz, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 47–48.

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, K. S. Kranz, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 47–48.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.

Meltz, G.

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y.-K. Park, J.-M. Delaveaux, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1773 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, “Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers,”; J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 335–337.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, K. S. Kranz, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 47–48.

Morey, W. W.

Park, Y.-K.

V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y.-K. Park, J.-M. Delaveaux, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, K. S. Kranz, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 47–48.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, K. S. Kranz, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 47–48.

White, A. E.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 335–337.

Zhong, Q.

Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, “Characterization of the light guiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, Electron. Lett. 28, 1773 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, S. G. Grubb, Y.-K. Park, J.-M. Delaveaux, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2021 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett (1)

G. A. Ball, G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett 18, 1976 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, “Characterization of UV-induced birefringence in photosensitive Ge-doped silica optical fibers,”; J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, “Characterization of the light guiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,” submitted toJ. Lightwave Technol.

P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, K. S. Kranz, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 47–48.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, M. Kawachi, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 331–334.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, A. E. White, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 335–337.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of UV exposure of fiber samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Growth in birefringence measured against time during UV exposure: ▵, s-polarized light; ●, p-polarized light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of optical fiber end faces: (a) Unexposed conventional communication-grade fiber with 3% germania in the core, (b) fiber exposed to UV from one side (left of picture) showing a higher etch depth on the side of exposure, (c) fiber exposed from both sides showing a similar preferential etch around the circumference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Asymmetry in the measured refractive-index profile of a fiber exposed to one-sided radiation. Solid curve, radius > 0, corresponding to the fiber section away from UV radiation; dashed curve, all radii correspond to fiber sections exposed to UV radiation.

Equations (2)

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Δ n = λ 2 π L | phase ( Λ 1 ) - phase ( Λ 2 ) | ,
det [ T ( t ) T - 1 ( 0 ) - Λ I ] = 0.

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