Abstract

I develop a quantitative optimization procedure for femtosecond reflectance ellipsometer measurements. The femtosecond ellipsometer eliminates the need for separate thin-film reflectance and transmittance measurements and allows self-consistent determination of dielectric index changes of optically thick films on arbitrary substrates. I verify the optimization procedure and use the femtosecond ellipsometric measurements to investigate the photoreflectance of an optically thick gold film. A comparison of the extracted real and imaginary dielectric function components reveals evidence of thermalized and nonthermalized hot-electron populations.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. B. Buckman, Surf. Sci. 16, 193 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, Thin Solid Films 234, 399 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. E. Jellison, D. H. Lowndes, Appl. Opt. 24, 2948 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. H. Auston, C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. R. Choo, X. F. Hu, M. C. Downer, V. P. Kesan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1507 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1950 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  9. H. R. Choo, “Rapid-scan femtosecond ellipsometry and ita application to optical surface diagnostics and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1993).
  10. R. W. Shoenlein, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, G. L. Eesley, in Ultrafast Phenomena V (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 260–262.
  11. S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Chwalek, D. R. Dykaar, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1273 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, Phys. Rev. B 47, 13599 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. Vallee, C. K. Sun, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 69–70.

1994 (1)

M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1950 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (3)

H. R. Choo, X. F. Hu, M. C. Downer, V. P. Kesan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1507 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, Thin Solid Films 234, 399 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, Phys. Rev. B 47, 13599 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. M. Chwalek, D. R. Dykaar, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1273 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

D. H. Auston, C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

A. B. Buckman, Surf. Sci. 16, 193 (1969).
[Crossref]

Acioli, L.

F. Vallee, C. K. Sun, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 69–70.

Antonangeli, F.

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[Crossref]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
[Crossref]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120 (1974).
[Crossref]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Brorson, S. D.

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buckman, A. B.

A. B. Buckman, Surf. Sci. 16, 193 (1969).
[Crossref]

Carruthers, T. F.

M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1950 (1994).
[Crossref]

Choo, H. R.

H. R. Choo, X. F. Hu, M. C. Downer, V. P. Kesan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1507 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. R. Choo, “Rapid-scan femtosecond ellipsometry and ita application to optical surface diagnostics and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1993).

Chwalek, J. M.

J. M. Chwalek, D. R. Dykaar, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1273 (1990).
[Crossref]

Downer, M. C.

H. R. Choo, X. F. Hu, M. C. Downer, V. P. Kesan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1507 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dykaar, D. R.

J. M. Chwalek, D. R. Dykaar, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1273 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eesley, G. L.

R. W. Shoenlein, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, G. L. Eesley, in Ultrafast Phenomena V (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 260–262.

Elsayed-Ali, H. E.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, Phys. Rev. B 47, 13599 (1993).
[Crossref]

Frankel, M. Y.

M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1950 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Shoenlein, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, G. L. Eesley, in Ultrafast Phenomena V (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 260–262.

F. Vallee, C. K. Sun, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 69–70.

Grassano, U. M.

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. F.

H. R. Choo, X. F. Hu, M. C. Downer, V. P. Kesan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1507 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vallee, C. K. Sun, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 69–70.

Jellison, G. E.

Juhasz, T.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, Phys. Rev. B 47, 13599 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kesan, V. P.

H. R. Choo, X. F. Hu, M. C. Downer, V. P. Kesan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1507 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lin, W. Z.

R. W. Shoenlein, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, G. L. Eesley, in Ultrafast Phenomena V (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 260–262.

Lowndes, D. H.

Rosei, R.

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[Crossref]

Shank, C. V.

D. H. Auston, C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120 (1974).
[Crossref]

Shoenlein, R. W.

R. W. Shoenlein, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, G. L. Eesley, in Ultrafast Phenomena V (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 260–262.

Snyder, P. G.

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, Thin Solid Films 234, 399 (1993).
[Crossref]

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. K.

F. Vallee, C. K. Sun, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 69–70.

Vallee, F.

F. Vallee, C. K. Sun, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 69–70.

Woollam, J. A.

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, Thin Solid Films 234, 399 (1993).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Y. M.

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, Thin Solid Films 234, 399 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. R. Choo, X. F. Hu, M. C. Downer, V. P. Kesan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1507 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Frankel, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1950 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
[Crossref]

H. E. Elsayed-Ali, T. Juhasz, Phys. Rev. B 47, 13599 (1993).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1962 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Auston, C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120 (1974).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. M. Chwalek, D. R. Dykaar, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1273 (1990).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. (2)

R. Rosei, F. Antonangeli, U. M. Grassano, Surf. Sci. 37, 689 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. B. Buckman, Surf. Sci. 16, 193 (1969).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. M. Xiong, P. G. Snyder, J. A. Woollam, Thin Solid Films 234, 399 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

H. R. Choo, “Rapid-scan femtosecond ellipsometry and ita application to optical surface diagnostics and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductors,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 1993).

R. W. Shoenlein, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, G. L. Eesley, in Ultrafast Phenomena V (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 260–262.

F. Vallee, C. K. Sun, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Vol. 12 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 69–70.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive- and absorptive-index-change components extracted from measurements at indicated compensator angle settings. The calculated relative noise levels are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extracted real and imaginary components of the dielectric function change.

Equations (4)

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V 1 , 2 + Δ V 1 , 2 ( t 1 , 2 ) = K P o [ 1 + q 1 , 2 ( t 1 , 2 ) ] × [ E · I 1 , 2 + I 1 , 2 n Δ n o ( τ ) cos ( ω m t 1 , 2 ) + I 1 , 2 k Δ k o ( τ ) cos ( ω m t 1 , 2 ) ] ,
Δ n err ( τ ) I 2 k [ I 1 n Δ n o ( τ ) + I 1 k Δ k o ( τ ) ] [ Q 1 ( 0 ) + Q 1 ( 2 ω m ) ] + 2 E I 1 Q 1 ( ω m ) Λ - I 1 k [ I 2 n Δ n o ( τ ) + I 2 k Δ k o ( τ ) ] [ Q 2 ( 0 ) + Q 2 ( 2 ω m ) ] + 2 E I 2 Q 2 ( ω m ) Λ ,
Λ = I n | ( n o , k o , 1 ) I k | ( n o , k o , 2 ) - I n | ( n o , k o , 2 ) I k | ( n o , k o , 1 )
Δ n err min E | I 2 k I 1 | + | I 1 k I 2 | Λ .

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