Abstract

We present reconstructions of a three-dimensional object imaged in reflection mode through a turbid medium, using time-gated Raman amplification. We demonstrate a less than 1-cm depth resolution at a laser-power-limited viewing distance of 8.5 attenuation lengths from an object with a rough metallic surface. We show that, even at a viewing distance of 10.5 attenuation lengths, the imaging system is power limited rather than backscatter limited.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Chance, R. Alfano, eds., Photon Migration in Random Media and Tissues, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1888 (1993).
  2. C. J. Funk, S. B. Bryant, P. J. Heckman, Handbook of Underwater Imaging System Design (Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, Calif., 1972), pp. 2-1ff.
  3. E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer Through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 251.
  4. J. A. Moon, R. Mahon, M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 18, 1591 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. J. Kulp, D. Garvis, R. Kennedy, T. Salmon, K. Cooper, Appl. Opt. 32, 3520 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. A. Swartz, J. D. Cummings, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1537, 42 (1991).
  8. L. L. Kalpaxis, L. M. Wang, P. Galland, X. Liang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 18, 1691 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Valdmanis, N. H. Abramson, Laser Focus World (February1991), p. 111.
  10. M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 16, 1868 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Rohm and Hass Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
  12. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 483.

1993 (4)

1991 (3)

J. A. Valdmanis, N. H. Abramson, Laser Focus World (February1991), p. 111.

M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 16, 1868 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Swartz, J. D. Cummings, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1537, 42 (1991).

1972 (1)

C. J. Funk, S. B. Bryant, P. J. Heckman, Handbook of Underwater Imaging System Design (Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, Calif., 1972), pp. 2-1ff.

Abramson, N. H.

J. A. Valdmanis, N. H. Abramson, Laser Focus World (February1991), p. 111.

Alfano, R. R.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 483.

Bryant, S. B.

C. J. Funk, S. B. Bryant, P. J. Heckman, Handbook of Underwater Imaging System Design (Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, Calif., 1972), pp. 2-1ff.

Cooper, K.

Cummings, J. D.

B. A. Swartz, J. D. Cummings, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1537, 42 (1991).

Duncan, M. D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Funk, C. J.

C. J. Funk, S. B. Bryant, P. J. Heckman, Handbook of Underwater Imaging System Design (Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, Calif., 1972), pp. 2-1ff.

Galland, P.

Garvis, D.

Heckman, P. J.

C. J. Funk, S. B. Bryant, P. J. Heckman, Handbook of Underwater Imaging System Design (Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, Calif., 1972), pp. 2-1ff.

Hee, M. R.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

Huang, D.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 483.

Ivanov, A. P.

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer Through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 251.

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kalpaxis, L. L.

Katsev, I. L.

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer Through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 251.

Kennedy, R.

Kulp, T. J.

Liang, X.

Lin, C. P.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R.

Moon, J. A.

Puliafito, C. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J.

Salmon, T.

Schuman, J. S.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swartz, B. A.

B. A. Swartz, J. D. Cummings, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1537, 42 (1991).

Tankersley, L. L.

Valdmanis, J. A.

J. A. Valdmanis, N. H. Abramson, Laser Focus World (February1991), p. 111.

Wang, L. M.

Zege, E. P.

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer Through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 251.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Handbook of Underwater Imaging System Design (1)

C. J. Funk, S. B. Bryant, P. J. Heckman, Handbook of Underwater Imaging System Design (Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, Calif., 1972), pp. 2-1ff.

Laser Focus World (1)

J. A. Valdmanis, N. H. Abramson, Laser Focus World (February1991), p. 111.

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Photon. News 4(10), 14 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

B. A. Swartz, J. D. Cummings, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1537, 42 (1991).

Other (4)

B. Chance, R. Alfano, eds., Photon Migration in Random Media and Tissues, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1888 (1993).

E. P. Zege, A. P. Ivanov, I. L. Katsev, Image Transfer Through a Scattering Medium (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 251.

Rohm and Hass Company, Philadelphia, Pa.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 483.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experiment used to image in reflection mode through a turbid water solution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(f) Time slices of the rings of the cone object with increasing time delay of the pump pulse. Image (g) shows the reflected image without time gating and without the scattering material present in the water. Image (h) was taken under the same conditions as those of (g), except that the scatterer was present in the water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Video image and (b), (c) reconstructions of the cone object. Image (b) is a reconstruction from data taken when the scattering material was not present in the water, and image (c) is a reconstruction from data taken when the scattering material was present. The source-to-object distance in image (c) is 8.5 attenuation lengths.

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