Abstract

Results from an electrically addressed liquid-crystal cell producing continuous phase profiles are presented. The adaptive deflection of a beam of light for use in a tip-tilt adaptive optics system is demonstrated. We compare the optical performance of liquid-crystal prisms with experimental data on atmospheric seeing at the William Herschel Telescope.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. A. Vasil’ev, A. F. Naumov, V. I. Shamal’gauzen, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 471 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Grinberg, T. R. O’Meara, M. S. Welkowsky, U.S. patent4,963,709 (July24, 1990).
  4. D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).
  5. P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.
  6. A. Purvis, N. Bailey, G. D. Love, J. V. Major, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2000, 96 (1993).
  7. G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, R. M. Sharples, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 295.
  8. S. Esposito, G. Brusa, D. Bonaccini, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 289.
  9. G. D. Love, S. R. Restaino, G. C. Loos, A. Purvis, “Wavefront control using a 64 × 64 pixel liquid-crystal array,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2201 (to be published).
  10. G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 24, 1708 (1991); erratum G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 26, 1014 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, M. C. Wiltshire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1445, 145 (1991).
  12. A. F. Fray, M. Link, D. Jones, U.S. patent4,066,334 (1977).
  13. A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, R. M. Sharples, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 31 (1991).
  14. S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1794 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. J. Bos, K R. Koehler-Beran, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Schadt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 89, 77 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. D. Love, Appl. Opt. 32, 2222 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Labrunie, J. Robert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4869 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1993

A. Purvis, N. Bailey, G. D. Love, J. V. Major, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2000, 96 (1993).

G. D. Love, Appl. Opt. 32, 2222 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 24, 1708 (1991); erratum G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 26, 1014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, M. C. Wiltshire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1445, 145 (1991).

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, R. M. Sharples, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 31 (1991).

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

1989

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1794 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. A. Vasil’ev, A. F. Naumov, V. I. Shamal’gauzen, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 471 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

P. J. Bos, K R. Koehler-Beran, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

M. Schadt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 89, 77 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. Labrunie, J. Robert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4869 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, N.

A. Purvis, N. Bailey, G. D. Love, J. V. Major, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2000, 96 (1993).

Biliotto, V.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

Bonaccini, D.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

S. Esposito, G. Brusa, D. Bonaccini, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 289.

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos, K R. Koehler-Beran, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. P.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Brusa, G.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

S. Esposito, G. Brusa, D. Bonaccini, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 289.

Clark, M. G.

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, M. C. Wiltshire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1445, 145 (1991).

Doel, A. P.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, R. M. Sharples, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 31 (1991).

Dunlop, C. N.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, R. M. Sharples, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 31 (1991).

Efron, U.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Esposito, S.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

S. Esposito, G. Brusa, D. Bonaccini, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 289.

Fray, A. F.

A. F. Fray, M. Link, D. Jones, U.S. patent4,066,334 (1977).

Gaeta, C. J.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Grinberg, J.

J. Grinberg, T. R. O’Meara, M. S. Welkowsky, U.S. patent4,963,709 (July24, 1990).

Jones, D.

A. F. Fray, M. Link, D. Jones, U.S. patent4,066,334 (1977).

Katulin, V. A.

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Koehler-Beran, K R.

P. J. Bos, K R. Koehler-Beran, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Labrunie, G.

G. Labrunie, J. Robert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4869 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lind, R. C.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Link, M.

A. F. Fray, M. Link, D. Jones, U.S. patent4,066,334 (1977).

Loos, G. C.

G. D. Love, S. R. Restaino, G. C. Loos, A. Purvis, “Wavefront control using a 64 × 64 pixel liquid-crystal array,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2201 (to be published).

Love, G. D.

G. D. Love, Appl. Opt. 32, 2222 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Purvis, N. Bailey, G. D. Love, J. V. Major, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2000, 96 (1993).

G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 24, 1708 (1991); erratum G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 26, 1014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Love, S. R. Restaino, G. C. Loos, A. Purvis, “Wavefront control using a 64 × 64 pixel liquid-crystal array,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2201 (to be published).

G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, R. M. Sharples, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 295.

Major, J. V.

A. Purvis, N. Bailey, G. D. Love, J. V. Major, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2000, 96 (1993).

G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 24, 1708 (1991); erratum G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 26, 1014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, R. M. Sharples, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 31 (1991).

Mitchell, P. V.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Myers, R. M.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, R. M. Sharples, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 31 (1991).

G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, R. M. Sharples, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 295.

Naumov, A. F.

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Vasil’ev, A. F. Naumov, V. I. Shamal’gauzen, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 471 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O’Meara, T. R.

J. Grinberg, T. R. O’Meara, M. S. Welkowsky, U.S. patent4,963,709 (July24, 1990).

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Pepper, D. M.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Powell, N. J.

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, M. C. Wiltshire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1445, 145 (1991).

Purvis, A.

A. Purvis, N. Bailey, G. D. Love, J. V. Major, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2000, 96 (1993).

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, M. C. Wiltshire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1445, 145 (1991).

G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, R. M. Sharples, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 295.

G. D. Love, S. R. Restaino, G. C. Loos, A. Purvis, “Wavefront control using a 64 × 64 pixel liquid-crystal array,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2201 (to be published).

Restaino, S. R.

G. D. Love, S. R. Restaino, G. C. Loos, A. Purvis, “Wavefront control using a 64 × 64 pixel liquid-crystal array,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2201 (to be published).

Robert, J.

G. Labrunie, J. Robert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4869 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Salinari, P.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 89, 77 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shamal’gauzen, V. I.

A. A. Vasil’ev, A. F. Naumov, V. I. Shamal’gauzen, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 471 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sharples, R. M.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, R. M. Sharples, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 31 (1991).

G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, R. M. Sharples, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 295.

Stefanini, P.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

Vasil’ev, A. A.

A. A. Vasil’ev, A. F. Naumov, V. I. Shamal’gauzen, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 471 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vorontsov, M. A.

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Welkowsky, M. S.

J. Grinberg, T. R. O’Meara, M. S. Welkowsky, U.S. patent4,963,709 (July24, 1990).

Williams, G.

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, M. C. Wiltshire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1445, 145 (1991).

Wiltshire, M. C.

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, M. C. Wiltshire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1445, 145 (1991).

Wu, C. S.

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1794 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1794 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. T. Wu, C. S. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1794 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Labrunie, J. Robert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4869 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 24, 1708 (1991); erratum G. D. Love, J. V. Major, J. Phys. D 26, 1014 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

P. J. Bos, K R. Koehler-Beran, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 89, 77 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

D. Bonaccini, G. Brusa, S. Esposito, P. Salinari, P. Stefanini, V. Biliotto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 133 (1991).

A. Purvis, N. Bailey, G. D. Love, J. V. Major, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 2000, 96 (1993).

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, M. C. Wiltshire, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1445, 145 (1991).

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, R. M. Sharples, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1542, 31 (1991).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

A. A. Vasil’ev, A. F. Naumov, V. I. Shamal’gauzen, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 471 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. F. Fray, M. Link, D. Jones, U.S. patent4,066,334 (1977).

G. D. Love, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, R. M. Sharples, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 295.

S. Esposito, G. Brusa, D. Bonaccini, in ICO-16 Conference on Active and Adaptive Optics (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1993), p. 289.

G. D. Love, S. R. Restaino, G. C. Loos, A. Purvis, “Wavefront control using a 64 × 64 pixel liquid-crystal array,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.2201 (to be published).

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

J. Grinberg, T. R. O’Meara, M. S. Welkowsky, U.S. patent4,963,709 (July24, 1990).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electrical connections to the LC prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical apparatus for observing deflections with a LC prism.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Double exposure showing a LC prism deflecting a white-light beam through 25 arcsec relative to the un-diverted beam. First-order diffraction rings can also be seen. The scale is produced by the graticule.

Figure 4
Figure 4

Oscilloscope trace showing (top) photodiode output as the light beam is repeatedly deflected through and away from a pinhole (see Fig. 3) and (bottom) the voltages applied to one end of the prism.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histogram of required prism angle stroke rates for use in MARTINI collected at the William Herschel Telescope. Mean prism angle, 14 arcsec; mean prism rate, 1 arcsec/ms.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Control of the LC Prism with the Transient Nematic Effecta

Tables Icon

Table 2 LC Prism Deflection Rates Extrapolated from Response Time Measurements

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ = Δ n d L ,

Metrics