Abstract

We have fabricated and built three-dimensional photonic band-gap crystals with band-gap frequencies larger than 500 GHz. We built the crystals by stacking micromachined (110) silicon wafers. The transmission and dispersion characteristics of the structures were measured by an all-electronic terahertz spectroscopy setup. The experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations. To our knowledge, our new crystal has the highest reported photonic band-gap frequency.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. For a recent review, seeC. M. Soukoulis, ed., Photonic Bandgaps and Localization (Plenum, New York, 1993).
  4. See the feature issue on development and applications of materials exhibiting photonic band gaps,J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 280–413 (1993).
  5. E. R. Brown, C. D. Parker, E. Yablonovitch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 404 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
  8. E. Ozbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. W. Van Der Weide, J. S. Bostak, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 22 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. S. Bostak, D. W. Van Der Weide, I. Aoki, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 112.
  11. W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. Ozbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abeyta, A.

E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Aoki, I.

J. S. Bostak, D. W. Van Der Weide, I. Aoki, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 112.

Arjavalingam, G.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auld, B. A.

D. W. Van Der Weide, J. S. Bostak, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 22 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. S. Bostak, D. W. Van Der Weide, I. Aoki, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 112.

Biswas, R.

E. Ozbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Bloom, D. M.

D. W. Van Der Weide, J. S. Bostak, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 22 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. S. Bostak, D. W. Van Der Weide, I. Aoki, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 112.

Bostak, J. S.

D. W. Van Der Weide, J. S. Bostak, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 22 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. S. Bostak, D. W. Van Der Weide, I. Aoki, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 112.

Brommer, K. D.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. Ozbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, K. M.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michel, E.

E. Ozbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Parker, C. D.

Rappe, A. M.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robertson, W. M.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. Ozbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059 (1994).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C.

E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tringides, M.

E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Tuttle, G.

E. Ozbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059 (1994).
[Crossref]

E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Van Der Weide, D. W.

D. W. Van Der Weide, J. S. Bostak, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 22 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. S. Bostak, D. W. Van Der Weide, I. Aoki, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 112.

Yablonovitch, E.

E. R. Brown, C. D. Parker, E. Yablonovitch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 404 (1993).
[Crossref]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Ozbay, E. Michel, G. Tuttle, M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2059 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. W. Van Der Weide, J. S. Bostak, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 22 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

E. Ozbay, A. Abeyta, G. Tuttle, M. Tringides, R. Biswas, C. Soukoulis, C. T. Chan, K. M. Ho, “Measurement of three-dimensional photonic band gap in new crystal structure made of dielectric rods”, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

For a recent review, seeC. M. Soukoulis, ed., Photonic Bandgaps and Localization (Plenum, New York, 1993).

J. S. Bostak, D. W. Van Der Weide, I. Aoki, B. A. Auld, D. M. Bloom, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah, U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), p. 112.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustrating the design of the three-dimensional photonic band-gap crystal. The structure is built by an orderly stacking of dielectric rods and is repeated every four layers in the stacking direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

All-electronic terahertz free-space spectroscopy system: I.F., intermediate frequency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

EM wave transmission through the micromachined crystal in which the wave vector of the incident radiation is normal to the wafer surfaces. The arrows indicate calculated band-edge frequencies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frequency versus wave vector dispersion along the stacking direction of the crystal. The solid curves represent the calculations; the filled circles represent the values obtained from the experiments.

Equations (1)

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k = Δ ϕ L + 2 π f c ,

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