Abstract

We present and experimentally demonstrate a new method for enhancing the signal-to-background ratio of two-wave mixing in photorefractive crystals. The method uses a mutually incoherent third beam to suppress the fanning in a dark ring-shaped region in which the amplified signal is located. A 20-fold improvement of the signal-to-background ratio is measured in BaTiO3 at λ = 514 nm. The extension of this principle to wide-field-of-view heterodyne detection is discussed.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988); Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Hamel de Montchenault, J.-P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 624 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. M. Davidson, L. Boutsikaris, Opt. Eng. 29, 309 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Segev, D. Engin, A. Yariv, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 18, 302 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. H. Kingston, in Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 24–38.
  6. H. Rajbenbach, A. Delboulbé, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 141275 (1989); H. Rajbenbach, A. Delboulbé, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 16, 1481 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. L. Adler, W. S. Rabinowich, A. E. Clement, G. C. Gilbreath, B. J. Feldman, Opt. Lett. 16, 1147 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Joseph, P. K. C. Pillai, K. Singh, Appl. Opt. 30, 3315 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. Breugnot, M. Defour, H. Rajbenbach, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 104, 118 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Fainman, E. Klancnick, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
  12. T. Y. Chang, P. Yeh, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 739, 109 (1987).
  13. M. Horowitz, B. Fisher, Opt. Lett. 17, 1082 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Dolfi, A. Delboulbé, J.-P. Huignard, Electron. Lett. 29, 450 (1993).
    [Crossref]

1993 (4)

M. Segev, D. Engin, A. Yariv, G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 18, 302 (1993).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Breugnot, M. Defour, H. Rajbenbach, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 104, 118 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. Dolfi, A. Delboulbé, J.-P. Huignard, Electron. Lett. 29, 450 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

F. M. Davidson, L. Boutsikaris, Opt. Eng. 29, 309 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

G. Hamel de Montchenault, J.-P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 624 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

T. Y. Chang, P. Yeh, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 739, 109 (1987).

1986 (1)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnick, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Adler, C. L.

Boutsikaris, L.

F. M. Davidson, L. Boutsikaris, Opt. Eng. 29, 309 (1990).
[Crossref]

Breugnot, S.

S. Breugnot, M. Defour, H. Rajbenbach, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 104, 118 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang, P. Yeh, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 739, 109 (1987).

Clement, A. E.

Davidson, F. M.

F. M. Davidson, L. Boutsikaris, Opt. Eng. 29, 309 (1990).
[Crossref]

Defour, M.

S. Breugnot, M. Defour, H. Rajbenbach, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 104, 118 (1993).
[Crossref]

Delboulbé, A.

Ding, X.

Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dolfi, D.

D. Dolfi, A. Delboulbé, J.-P. Huignard, Electron. Lett. 29, 450 (1993).
[Crossref]

Engin, D.

Fainman, Y.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnick, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Feldman, B. J.

Fisher, B.

Fu, P.

Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gilbreath, G. C.

Hamel de Montchenault, G.

G. Hamel de Montchenault, J.-P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 624 (1988).
[Crossref]

Horowitz, M.

Huignard, J.-P.

D. Dolfi, A. Delboulbé, J.-P. Huignard, Electron. Lett. 29, 450 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Breugnot, M. Defour, H. Rajbenbach, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 104, 118 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Rajbenbach, A. Delboulbé, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 141275 (1989); H. Rajbenbach, A. Delboulbé, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 16, 1481 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hamel de Montchenault, J.-P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 624 (1988).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Q.

Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
[Crossref]

Joseph, J.

Kingston, R. H.

R. H. Kingston, in Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 24–38.

Klancnick, E.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnick, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Lee, S. H.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnick, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Mi, X.

Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pillai, P. K. C.

Rabinowich, W. S.

Rajbenbach, H.

Segev, M.

Singh, K.

Valley, G. C.

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

T. Y. Chang, P. Yeh, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 739, 109 (1987).

Yu, Z.

Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Dolfi, A. Delboulbé, J.-P. Huignard, Electron. Lett. 29, 450 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Hamel de Montchenault, J.-P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 624 (1988).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Z. Zhang, X. Ding, Y. Zhu, Q. Jiang, X. Mi, Z. Yu, P. Fu, Opt. Commun. 97, 105 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Breugnot, M. Defour, H. Rajbenbach, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 104, 118 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnick, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

F. M. Davidson, L. Boutsikaris, Opt. Eng. 29, 309 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

T. Y. Chang, P. Yeh, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 739, 109 (1987).

Other (2)

R. H. Kingston, in Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 24–38.

P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988); Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Generation of a dark ring for the background reduction in photorefractive two-wave mixing: kg grating vector; 2θ, signal-to-pump-beam angle; φ, signal-to-incoherent-beam angle; α, angle between the grating vector kg and the crystal axis c. The amplified signal is located in the dark ring. The photograph shows the amplified signal containing spatial information (the letter C) in the dark ring.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transverse scan along the x axis of the fanning distribution in the focal plane of a 300-mm lens without (r = 0, upper curve) and with (r = 1, lower curve) incoherent illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-wave-mixing gain and fanning intensity in the dark ring as a function of the intensity of the incoherent beam ratio r = Iinc/Ip. Inset: the signal-to-background ratio (S/B).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental demonstration of ultraweak signal detection: (a) amplified image (the letter C) buried in the fanning background; (b) amplified image in the dark ring created by the mutually incoherent interaction: the amplified image is extracted.

Equations (3)

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S / N = R 2 I lo I s Re ( I lo + I s + I b ) Δ f ,
i d ( t ) = 2 R G I s cos 2 π f t .
S / N = R 2 G I s 2 e ( G I s + I b ) Δ f .

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