Abstract

Using a GaAs layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low substrate temperature as an optical semiconductor switch, we demonstrate the generation of picosecond infrared pulses at 10.6 μm. To our knowledge, this is the first time that ultrashort pulses have been generated by use of only one reflective switch. A cross-correlation method, which is used to measure the pulse width, indicates that the pulse width is ~1 ps. A 200-nm-thick, low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown GaAs layer, acting as an ultrafast active switching element, was grown at a low temperature of 320 °C on a GaAs substrate and annealed at 550 °C. The presence of a high density of As precipitates in this material that act as fast recombination centers gives the optically injected carriers in low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown GaAs a lifetime of 0.5 ps. We also discuss the feasibility of the extension of this technique to other mid- and far-infrared lasers.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

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References

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1993

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, B. Tadayon, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Johnson, C. Lavoie, T. Tiedje, J. Mackenzie, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 1007 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

X. Q. Zhou, H. M. van Driel, W. W. Rühle, Z. Gogolak, K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Elezzabi, J. Meyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1830 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1989

M. Quack, Infrared Phys. 29, 441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

P. B. Corkum, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, J. T. Manassah, Opt. Lett. 10, 624 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mukherjee, M. Sheik-Bahaei, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 770 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

G. K. Paramonov, V. A. Asva, Opt. Commun. 52, 69 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

A. V. Nurmikko, B. D. Schwartz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 229 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Sharp, E. Yablonovitch, N. Bloembergen, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Asva, V. A.

G. K. Paramonov, V. A. Asva, Opt. Commun. 52, 69 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aumiller, G. D.

Bäuerle, R. J.

T. Elsaesser, R. J. Bäuerle, R. Klann, W. Kaiser, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 328–330.
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

R. C. Sharp, E. Yablonovitch, N. Bloembergen, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bridges, T. J.

Carruthers, T. F.

M. Y. Frankel, B. Tadayon, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. L.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

Elezzabi, A. Y.

A. Y. Elezzabi, J. Meyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1830 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

T. Elsaesser, A. Lohner, M. Woerner, in Festkörper Probleme, U. Rossler, Vol. 32 of Advances in Solid State Physics (Vieweg, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1992), pp. 131–144.

T. Elsaesser, R. J. Bäuerle, R. Klann, W. Kaiser, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 328–330.
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

M. Y. Frankel, B. Tadayon, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gogolak, Z.

X. Q. Zhou, H. M. van Driel, W. W. Rühle, Z. Gogolak, K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, E. S.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

Johnson, A. M.

Johnson, S. R.

S. R. Johnson, C. Lavoie, T. Tiedje, J. Mackenzie, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 1007 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

T. Elsaesser, R. J. Bäuerle, R. Klann, W. Kaiser, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 328–330.
[CrossRef]

Klann, R.

T. Elsaesser, R. J. Bäuerle, R. Klann, W. Kaiser, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 328–330.
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

P. Mukherjee, M. Sheik-Bahaei, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 770 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lavoie, C.

S. R. Johnson, C. Lavoie, T. Tiedje, J. Mackenzie, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 1007 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lohner, A.

T. Elsaesser, A. Lohner, M. Woerner, in Festkörper Probleme, U. Rossler, Vol. 32 of Advances in Solid State Physics (Vieweg, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1992), pp. 131–144.

Mackenzie, J.

S. R. Johnson, C. Lavoie, T. Tiedje, J. Mackenzie, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 1007 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manassah, J. T.

Melloch, M. R.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

A. Y. Elezzabi, J. Meyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1830 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, R. S.

Mukherjee, P.

P. Mukherjee, M. Sheik-Bahaei, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 770 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

A. V. Nurmikko, B. D. Schwartz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 229 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, N.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paramonov, G. K.

G. K. Paramonov, V. A. Asva, Opt. Commun. 52, 69 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K.

X. Q. Zhou, H. M. van Driel, W. W. Rühle, Z. Gogolak, K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Quack, M.

M. Quack, Infrared Phys. 29, 441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, W. W.

X. Q. Zhou, H. M. van Driel, W. W. Rühle, Z. Gogolak, K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. D.

A. V. Nurmikko, B. D. Schwartz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 229 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

R. C. Sharp, E. Yablonovitch, N. Bloembergen, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahaei, M.

P. Mukherjee, M. Sheik-Bahaei, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 770 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tadayon, B.

M. Y. Frankel, B. Tadayon, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tiedje, T.

S. R. Johnson, C. Lavoie, T. Tiedje, J. Mackenzie, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 1007 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tom, H. W. K.

van Driel, H. M.

X. Q. Zhou, H. M. van Driel, W. W. Rühle, Z. Gogolak, K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

T. Elsaesser, A. Lohner, M. Woerner, in Festkörper Probleme, U. Rossler, Vol. 32 of Advances in Solid State Physics (Vieweg, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1992), pp. 131–144.

Woodall, J. M.

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

R. C. Sharp, E. Yablonovitch, N. Bloembergen, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. Q.

X. Q. Zhou, H. M. van Driel, W. W. Rühle, Z. Gogolak, K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Mukherjee, M. Sheik-Bahaei, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 770 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Harmon, M. R. Melloch, J. M. Woodall, D. D. Nolte, N. Otsuka, C. L. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, B. Tadayon, T. F. Carruthers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Zhou, H. M. van Driel, W. W. Rühle, Z. Gogolak, K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3020 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Y. Elezzabi, J. Meyer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1830 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

M. Quack, Infrared Phys. 29, 441 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

R. C. Sharp, E. Yablonovitch, N. Bloembergen, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

A. V. Nurmikko, B. D. Schwartz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 229 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

S. R. Johnson, C. Lavoie, T. Tiedje, J. Mackenzie, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 1007 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

G. K. Paramonov, V. A. Asva, Opt. Commun. 52, 69 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

T. Elsaesser, R. J. Bäuerle, R. Klann, W. Kaiser, in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, Vol. 55 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 328–330.
[CrossRef]

T. Elsaesser, A. Lohner, M. Woerner, in Festkörper Probleme, U. Rossler, Vol. 32 of Advances in Solid State Physics (Vieweg, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1992), pp. 131–144.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. S1, LT-GaAs switch; S2, Si switch; B.S., 50/50 beam splitter; B.D., CO2 laser beam dump.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross-correlation transmission signal between the IR pulse and the visible pulse, creating the transmission temporal gate. The solid curve represents the model calculations, (b) IR pulse obtained from differentiating the cross-correlation curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variations of the reflected IR pulse energy function of the electron–hole plasma density. The LT-GaAs layer thickness is ~2 μm.

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