Abstract

A new technique for inducing a large permanent second-order susceptibility in lead silicate glass is reported. The procedure involves implanting electrons by irradiating the glass with an electron beam. Second-order nonlinearities χ(2) as high as 0.7 pm/V are obtained.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U. Österberg, W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 11, 516 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, Opt. Lett. 12, 587 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Li, P. J. Wells, E. R. Taylor, D. N. Payne, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTh06; in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MJ5.
  4. M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett. 13, 592 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, S. R. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Gross, in Electrets, G. M. Sessler, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), Chap. 4.
  8. H. Ito, C. Takyu, H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 27, 1221 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W.-Y. Hsu, M. C. Gupta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

1992 (3)

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Hsu, M. C. Gupta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

1991 (3)

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, S. R. Brueck, Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, C. Takyu, H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 27, 1221 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, Opt. Lett. 12, 587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Barbier, D.

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bergot, M.-V.

Brueck, S. R.

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

Farries, M. C.

Green, M.

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gross, B.

B. Gross, in Electrets, G. M. Sessler, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), Chap. 4.

Gupta, M. C.

W.-Y. Hsu, M. C. Gupta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Hsu, M. C. Gupta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

H. Ito, C. Takyu, H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 27, 1221 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, C. Takyu, H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 27, 1221 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

Li, L.

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, A. Smithson, Opt. Lett. 13, 592 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, P. J. Wells, E. R. Taylor, D. N. Payne, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTh06; in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MJ5.

Madden, S. J.

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Mito, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

Okada, A.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Österberg, U.

Payne, D. N.

L. Li, P. J. Wells, E. R. Taylor, D. N. Payne, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTh06; in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MJ5.

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sasaki, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smithson, A.

Starodubov, D. S.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

Stepanov, D. Yu.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, Opt. Lett. 12, 587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Takyu, C.

H. Ito, C. Takyu, H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 27, 1221 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, E. R.

L. Li, P. J. Wells, E. R. Taylor, D. N. Payne, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTh06; in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MJ5.

Tom, H. W. K.

R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, Opt. Lett. 12, 587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wells, P. J.

L. Li, P. J. Wells, E. R. Taylor, D. N. Payne, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTh06; in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MJ5.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Hsu, M. C. Gupta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Ito, C. Takyu, H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 27, 1221 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Sov. J. Lightwave Commun. (1)

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, Sov. J. Lightwave Commun. 2, 83 (1992).

Other (2)

L. Li, P. J. Wells, E. R. Taylor, D. N. Payne, in Digest of International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper QTh06; in Digest of Conference on Integrated Photonics Research (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper MJ5.

B. Gross, in Electrets, G. M. Sessler, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), Chap. 4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SH signal as a function of electron-beam energy. The current was kept constant at 3 nA for an electron-beam spot diameter of 0.5 μm a frame size of 1 mm × 1 mm, a horizontal scanning rate of 0.064 ms/line, and a vertical scanning rate of 20 s/frame. The solid curve is the best straight-line fit, yielding a slope of 3.4 on the log–log plot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SH signal as a function of electron-beam current. The electron energy was fixed at 40 keV. The scanning conditions were identical to those in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry used for imaging the depth profile of the induced second-order nonlinearity. The dashed box indicates the surface that had been previously exposed to the electron beam from the scanning electron microscope in the SL-3 mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field pattern of the SH signal. (a), (b), and (c) show changes in the intensity of the sidelobes as the sample was scanned along the x axis within the 1-mm distance corresponding to the irradiated region.

Equations (2)

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P z = 0 d 33 E z 2 + 0 d 31 ( E x 2 + E y 2 ) , P y = 2 0 d 31 E y E z ,             P x = 2 0 d 31 E x E z ,
P = 0 d 33 E 2 n - 1 sin α ,

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