Abstract

Chirped Mo–Si multilayer coatings, where the multilayer period is systematically varied throughout the deposition process, exhibit an increased x-ray bandwidth at normal incidence with a corresponding increase in the integrated reflectance of as much as 20% at λ ~ 13 nm. The increased bandwidth is accompanied by a slight reduction in peak reflectance. The relation between the integrated and peak reflectance is used to determine the chirp required to optimize the x-ray throughput of a multiple-element optical system.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  2. V. F. Sears, Neutron Optics, An Introduction to the Theory of Neutron Optical Phenomena and Their Applications (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).
  3. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. L. Windt, Appl. Opt. 30, 15 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, Appl. Opt. 30, 15 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Gaines, D. P.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Krumrey, M.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Muller, P.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Rosen, R. S.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Sears, V. F.

V. F. Sears, Neutron Optics, An Introduction to the Theory of Neutron Optical Phenomena and Their Applications (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

S. P. Vernon, D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, N. M. Ceglio, D. P. Gaines, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1547, 39 (1991); D. G. Stearns, S. P. Vernon, R. S. Rosen, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

V. F. Sears, Neutron Optics, An Introduction to the Theory of Neutron Optical Phenomena and Their Applications (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normal-incidence soft-x-ray reflectance as a function of x-ray wavelength for chirped ML coatings having ξ in the range of −0.04 to 0.01 nm/bilayer. The filled circles are experimental measurements. The values of ξ are derived from best-fit model calculations, shown as the curves. The reflectance spectra are shifted and broadened in proportion to the magnitude of the chirp. The broadening is accompanied by a reduction of the peak reflectance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured peak reflectance and integrated reflectance as a function of the chirp ξ. The integrated reflectance is defined as the integral of the reflectance over a 3-nm bandwidth centered at the wavelength of peak reflectance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Peak reflectance as a function of the integrated reflectance. Over the range of chirp investigated there is a linear relationship between Rp and RI of the form Rp = 100 −9.2RI.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak reflectance of chirped ML coating that yields the maximum x-ray throughput for an optical system having n reflections from identical, normal-incidence ML mirrors. The horizontal line at Rp = 70% is the theoretical maximum normal-incidence reflectivity for a Mo–Si ML coating at λ ~ 13 nm. Chirped ML coatings can be used to increase the x-ray throughput of optical systems having three or fewer reflections.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Structural Parameters of the Series of Chirped Multilayer Coatings Derived by Fitting the Normal-Incidence Reflectivitya

Equations (1)

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T 1 n R I R P n - 1 ,

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