Abstract

Besides its desirable power level, the use of a laser as a light source in microscopes opens the possibility of observing high signal-to-noise ratio images of dynamic phenomena that are sensitive to certain polarizations, excitation wavelengths, and phase shifts. However, the image quality is degraded by speckle noise. We propose a new fiber-illuminated laser-diode microscope that generates speckle-free images. The feedback effect in the laser diode is employed to transform a single-mode free-running laser into a multimode laser and to generate an output light whose multimode spectrum changes with time. The output of the laser diode is then passed through a multimode fiber whose exit face illuminates a conventional microscope with a continuously changing speckle pattern. These uncorrelated speckle patterns are averaged by a video detector to reduce speckle noise. The technique eliminates speckle noise without employing any moving mechanical parts and requires no additional electronics or extra optical elements except one mirror and one beam splitter. An experimental result showing excellent reduction of speckle is presented.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. E. Argyle, B. Petek, D. A. Herman, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4303 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, H. Ambar, Optik 70, 52 (1985).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. C. S. Ih, L. A. Baxter, Appl. Opt. 17, 1447 (1978).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Dandliker, A. Bertholds, F. Maystre, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3,7 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  16. See, for example, L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982); J. Biesterbos, A. Den Boef, W. Linders, G. Acket, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983); R. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Rawson, J. Goodman, R. E. Norton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 968 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. E. Epworth, Laser Focus 17(9), 109 (1981).
  19. D. Lenstra, B. Verbeck, A. J. Den Boef, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1163 (1984).

1992 (1)

B. Dingel, S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 92, 27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

1987 (1)

B. E. Argyle, B. Petek, D. A. Herman, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4303 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (4)

See, for example, B. Kachar, Science 227, 766 (1985); R. Hoffman, J. Microsc. 110, 205 (1977); T. Noda, S. Kawata, S. Minami, Appl. Opt. 31, 670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, H. Ambar, Optik 70, 52 (1985).

H. Ambar, Y. Aoki, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Appl. Phys B 38, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Dandliker, A. Bertholds, F. Maystre, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3,7 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeck, A. J. Den Boef, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1163 (1984).

1982 (1)

See, for example, L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982); J. Biesterbos, A. Den Boef, W. Linders, G. Acket, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983); R. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. E. Epworth, Laser Focus 17(9), 109 (1981).

1980 (2)

1978 (1)

1974 (1)

D. Kohler, W. Seitz, T. Loree, S. D. Gardner, Opt. Commun. 12, 24 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

Ambar, H.

S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, H. Ambar, Optik 70, 52 (1985).

H. Ambar, Y. Aoki, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Appl. Phys B 38, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Y.

H. Ambar, Y. Aoki, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Appl. Phys B 38, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Argyle, B. E.

B. E. Argyle, B. Petek, D. A. Herman, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4303 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, T.

H. Ambar, Y. Aoki, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Appl. Phys B 38, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, H. Ambar, Optik 70, 52 (1985).

Baxter, L. A.

Bertholds, A.

R. Dandliker, A. Bertholds, F. Maystre, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3,7 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dandliker, R.

R. Dandliker, A. Bertholds, F. Maystre, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3,7 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

See, for example, L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982); J. Biesterbos, A. Den Boef, W. Linders, G. Acket, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983); R. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Den Boef, A. J.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeck, A. J. Den Boef, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1163 (1984).

Dingel, B.

B. Dingel, S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 92, 27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Epworth, R. E.

R. E. Epworth, Laser Focus 17(9), 109 (1981).

Gardner, S. D.

D. Kohler, W. Seitz, T. Loree, S. D. Gardner, Opt. Commun. 12, 24 (1974).
[CrossRef]

George, N.

Goldberg, L.

See, for example, L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982); J. Biesterbos, A. Den Boef, W. Linders, G. Acket, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983); R. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

Herman, D. A.

B. E. Argyle, B. Petek, D. A. Herman, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4303 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ih, C. S.

Imai, M.

Imai, Y.

Jain, A.

Joyeux, D.

Jutamulia, S.

S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, H. Ambar, Optik 70, 52 (1985).

Kachar, B.

See, for example, B. Kachar, Science 227, 766 (1985); R. Hoffman, J. Microsc. 110, 205 (1977); T. Noda, S. Kawata, S. Minami, Appl. Opt. 31, 670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Kohler, D.

D. Kohler, W. Seitz, T. Loree, S. D. Gardner, Opt. Commun. 12, 24 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kuroiwa, Y.

Lenstra, D.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeck, A. J. Den Boef, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1163 (1984).

Loree, T.

D. Kohler, W. Seitz, T. Loree, S. D. Gardner, Opt. Commun. 12, 24 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lowenthal, S.

Maystre, F.

R. Dandliker, A. Bertholds, F. Maystre, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3,7 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mckechnie, T. S.

T. S. Mckechnie, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1984), p. 123.

Miles, R. O.

See, for example, L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982); J. Biesterbos, A. Den Boef, W. Linders, G. Acket, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983); R. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Minami, S.

Nakamura, O.

Noda, T.

Norton, R. E.

Ogino, K.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Ooki, H.

Petek, B.

B. E. Argyle, B. Petek, D. A. Herman, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4303 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rawson, E.

Saloma, C.

Seitz, W.

D. Kohler, W. Seitz, T. Loree, S. D. Gardner, Opt. Commun. 12, 24 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Takai, N.

H. Ambar, Y. Aoki, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Appl. Phys B 38, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

See, for example, L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982); J. Biesterbos, A. Den Boef, W. Linders, G. Acket, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983); R. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Verbeck, B.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeck, A. J. Den Boef, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1163 (1984).

Weller, J. F.

See, for example, L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982); J. Biesterbos, A. Den Boef, W. Linders, G. Acket, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983); R. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys B (1)

H. Ambar, Y. Aoki, N. Takai, T. Asakura, Appl. Phys B 38, 71 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. Dandliker, A. Bertholds, F. Maystre, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3,7 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

See, for example, L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982); J. Biesterbos, A. Den Boef, W. Linders, G. Acket, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 986 (1983); R. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeck, A. J. Den Boef, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1163 (1984).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. E. Argyle, B. Petek, D. A. Herman, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4303 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Laser Focus (1)

R. E. Epworth, Laser Focus 17(9), 109 (1981).

Opt. Commun. (2)

B. Dingel, S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 92, 27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Kohler, W. Seitz, T. Loree, S. D. Gardner, Opt. Commun. 12, 24 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, H. Ambar, Optik 70, 52 (1985).

Science (1)

See, for example, B. Kachar, Science 227, 766 (1985); R. Hoffman, J. Microsc. 110, 205 (1977); T. Noda, S. Kawata, S. Minami, Appl. Opt. 31, 670 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. S. Mckechnie, in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1984), p. 123.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the LD microscope with an illuminating light coming from the exit face of a multimode fiber whose input comes from a LD with optical feedback.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental result showing (a) the free-running spectrum of the LD and (b) the broadened spectrum of the LD that is due to optical feedback at different times.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental result showing the image of the sample when it is illuminated by the light coming from (a) a multimode fiber but without optical feedback and (b) a multimode fiber with optical feedback (scale = 50 mm).

Equations (1)

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N T = i = 1 i = T N i - M , N T = i = 1 i = T [ ( m i Δ λ i ) / ( 1 p δ λ ) ] - M ,

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