Abstract

A new configuration of the fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer is demonstrated. This configuration utilizes two sensor heads on a single directional coupler in a split-cavity cross-coupled extrinsic fiber interferometric (SCEFI) arrangement to provide a four-beam interference. The need for quadrature phase biasing is eliminated, with a new spectrum analysis detection scheme devised for the SCEFI in a no-feedback condition. Good agreement between the model for interference and the experimental results is demonstrated. Wide applications for fiber sensor multiplexing and split-cavity étalons for filters in wavelength-division-multiplexing systems are indicated.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. J. Petuchowski, T. G. Giallorenzi, S. K. Sheem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2168 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. S. Sudarshanam, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 615 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. Mallinson, Appl. Opt. 26, 430 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. A. Murphy, M. F. Gunther, A. M. Vengsarkar, R. O. Claus, Opt. Lett. 16, 273 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. See, for example, R. O. Claus, ed., Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Fiber Sensor-Based Smart Materials and Structures (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1991).
  7. D. W. Stowe, W. E. Moore, V. J. Tekippe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 148 (1983).
  8. V. S. Sudarshanam, K. Srinivasan, Opt. Lett. 14, 140 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. S. Sudarshanam, Appl. Opt. 31, 5997 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. S. Sudarshanam, Opt. Commun. 88, 291 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. S. Sudarshanam, Opt. Lett. 17, 682 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 971 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Urquhart, Appl. Opt. 26, 456 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

1989

1987

1985

D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 971 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

D. W. Stowe, W. E. Moore, V. J. Tekippe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 148 (1983).

1982

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

S. J. Petuchowski, T. G. Giallorenzi, S. K. Sheem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2168 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

Culshaw, B.

D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 971 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Giallorenzi, T. G.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Petuchowski, T. G. Giallorenzi, S. K. Sheem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2168 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gunther, M. F.

Itoh, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mallinson, S. R.

Moore, W. E.

D. W. Stowe, W. E. Moore, V. J. Tekippe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 148 (1983).

Murphy, K. A.

Ose, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Petuchowski, S. J.

S. J. Petuchowski, T. G. Giallorenzi, S. K. Sheem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2168 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sheem, S. K.

S. J. Petuchowski, T. G. Giallorenzi, S. K. Sheem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2168 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

Stowe, D. W.

D. W. Stowe, W. E. Moore, V. J. Tekippe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 148 (1983).

Sudarshanam, V. S.

Tekippe, V. J.

D. W. Stowe, W. E. Moore, V. J. Tekippe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 148 (1983).

Tveten, A. B.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Urquhart, P.

Uttam, D.

D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 971 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 971 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Petuchowski, T. G. Giallorenzi, S. K. Sheem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2168 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, T. G. Giallorenzi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1635 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

V. S. Sudarshanam, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 615 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

V. S. Sudarshanam, Opt. Commun. 88, 291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

D. W. Stowe, W. E. Moore, V. J. Tekippe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 148 (1983).

Other

See, for example, R. O. Claus, ed., Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Fiber Sensor-Based Smart Materials and Structures (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1991).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement of the SCEFI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency spectra of the SCEFI output voltage at D1 for two arbitrary sampling instants (a) t1 and (b) t1 + Δt with the sensor head driven at 3 kHz and the modulator at 3.5 kHz. Δt is arbitrary.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency spectra of the output voltage at D2 of a single EFPI at the sensor head (top traces) and at D1 of the SCEFI (bottom traces) for (a), (b) the signal applied to the sensor head only at two arbitrary instants and (c) signals applied to both sensor and modulator heads.

Equations (11)

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V ( t ) = M + N ( cos [ 2 ( ϕ s + ϕ c + ϕ a + ϕ b ) ] + cos { 2 [ ϕ s + ϕ a - ( ϕ c + ϕ b ) ] } + 2 cos [ 2 ( ϕ s + ϕ a ) ] + 2 cos [ 2 ( ϕ c + ϕ b ) ] ) ,
V ( t ) = M + 2 N { cos [ 2 ( ϕ s + ϕ c + ϕ a + ϕ b ) ] + cos [ 2 ( ϕ s + ϕ a ) ] + cos [ 2 ( ϕ c + ϕ b ) ] } .
A = V ( f s ± f c ) = 4 N P J 1 ( 2 x ) J 1 ( 2 y ) ,
B = V ( f s ± 2 f c ) = 4 N Q J 1 ( 2 x ) J 2 ( 2 y ) ,
C = V ( 2 f s ± f c ) = 4 N P J 2 ( 2 x ) J 2 ( 2 y ) ,
D = V ( 2 f s ± f c ) = 4 N Q J 2 ( 2 x ) J 1 ( 2 y ) ,
E = V ( f s ) = 4 N J 1 ( 2 x ) [ Q J 0 ( 2 y ) + sin ( 2 ϕ a ) ] ,
F = V ( 3 f s ) = 4 N J 3 ( 2 x ) [ Q J 0 ( 2 y ) + sin ( 2 ϕ a ) ] ,
2 x = 4 ( C D ) 1 / 2 / { ( A B ) 1 / 2 [ 1 + ( F / E ) ] } .
2 x = { 24 G F / [ ( G + H ) ( E + F ) ] } 1 / 2 ,
2 y = 4 ( C B ) 1 / 2 / { ( A D ) 1 / 2 [ 1 + ( l / k ) ] } ,

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