Abstract

The spatial orientation of atomic multipole moments can be observed optically with resonant polarized light. We demonstrate the procedure in the ground state of atomic sodium, using optical pumping to polarize the angular momentum substates. We show how the resulting information can be used to distinguish among signal contributions originating from different multipole moments.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, e.g., W. Happer, B. S. Mathur, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 577 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Pancharatnam, Phys. Lett. 27A, 509 (1968).
  3. T. Mishina, Y. Fukuda, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 66, 25 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Appelt, P. Scheufler, M. Mehring, Opt. Commun. 74, 110 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Ducloy, M. P. Gorza, B. Decomps, Opt. Commun. 8, 21 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Mlynek, W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 30, 337 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Suter, H. Klepel, Europhys. Lett. 19, 469 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Adv. Magn. Opt. Reson. 16, 1(1991).
  10. D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 43, 6124 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Klepel, D. Suter, Opt. Commun. 90, 46 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Omont, Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 69 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Suter, H. Klepel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2001 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. See, e.g., J. E. Thomas, A. P. Ghosh, M. A. Attili, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3029 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

D. Suter, H. Klepel, Europhys. Lett. 19, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Klepel, D. Suter, Opt. Commun. 90, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

D. Suter, H. Klepel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2001 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Adv. Magn. Opt. Reson. 16, 1(1991).

D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 43, 6124 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. Appelt, P. Scheufler, M. Mehring, Opt. Commun. 74, 110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. Mishina, Y. Fukuda, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 66, 25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

See, e.g., J. E. Thomas, A. P. Ghosh, M. A. Attili, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3029 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

J. Mlynek, W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 30, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Omont, Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 69 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. Ducloy, M. P. Gorza, B. Decomps, Opt. Commun. 8, 21 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, Phys. Lett. 27A, 509 (1968).

1967 (1)

See, e.g., W. Happer, B. S. Mathur, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 577 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Appelt, S.

S. Appelt, P. Scheufler, M. Mehring, Opt. Commun. 74, 110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Attili, M. A.

See, e.g., J. E. Thomas, A. P. Ghosh, M. A. Attili, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3029 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decomps, B.

M. Ducloy, M. P. Gorza, B. Decomps, Opt. Commun. 8, 21 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

M. Ducloy, M. P. Gorza, B. Decomps, Opt. Commun. 8, 21 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

T. Mishina, Y. Fukuda, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 66, 25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gawlik, W.

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A. P.

See, e.g., J. E. Thomas, A. P. Ghosh, M. A. Attili, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3029 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorza, M. P.

M. Ducloy, M. P. Gorza, B. Decomps, Opt. Commun. 8, 21 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

See, e.g., W. Happer, B. S. Mathur, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 577 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hashi, T.

T. Mishina, Y. Fukuda, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 66, 25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Klepel, H.

D. Suter, H. Klepel, Europhys. Lett. 19, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Klepel, D. Suter, Opt. Commun. 90, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Suter, H. Klepel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2001 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalski, J.

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lange, W.

J. Mlynek, W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 30, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, B. S.

See, e.g., W. Happer, B. S. Mathur, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 577 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Mehring, M.

S. Appelt, P. Scheufler, M. Mehring, Opt. Commun. 74, 110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, T.

T. Mishina, Y. Fukuda, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 66, 25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

D. Suter, H. Klepel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2001 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 43, 6124 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Adv. Magn. Opt. Reson. 16, 1(1991).

J. Mlynek, W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 30, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, R.

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Omont, A.

A. Omont, Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 69 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, Phys. Lett. 27A, 509 (1968).

Scheufler, P.

S. Appelt, P. Scheufler, M. Mehring, Opt. Commun. 74, 110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Suter, D.

D. Suter, H. Klepel, Europhys. Lett. 19, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Klepel, D. Suter, Opt. Commun. 90, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 43, 6124 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Adv. Magn. Opt. Reson. 16, 1(1991).

D. Suter, H. Klepel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2001 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, J. E.

See, e.g., J. E. Thomas, A. P. Ghosh, M. A. Attili, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3029 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Träger, F.

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Magn. Opt. Reson. (1)

D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Adv. Magn. Opt. Reson. 16, 1(1991).

Europhys. Lett. (1)

D. Suter, H. Klepel, Europhys. Lett. 19, 469 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (6)

H. Klepel, D. Suter, Opt. Commun. 90, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Mishina, Y. Fukuda, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 66, 25 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Appelt, P. Scheufler, M. Mehring, Opt. Commun. 74, 110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Ducloy, M. P. Gorza, B. Decomps, Opt. Commun. 8, 21 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. Gawlik, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, F. Träger, Opt. Commun. 12, 400 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Mlynek, W. Lange, Opt. Commun. 30, 337 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Pancharatnam, Phys. Lett. 27A, 509 (1968).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. Suter, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. A 43, 6124 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, e.g., J. E. Thomas, A. P. Ghosh, M. A. Attili, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3029 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Suter, H. Klepel, J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2001 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, e.g., W. Happer, B. S. Mathur, Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 577 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Omont, Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 69 (1977).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: P, polarizer; BS, beam splitter; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; rf, radio-frequency synthesizer; B, magnetic field; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PD’s, photodiodes; M, mixer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum obtained by Fourier transformation of the experimental time-domain data from the Na ground state. Signal contributions from different multipole moments lead to different resonance lines. The numbers above the resonance lines indicate the assignment to the sublevel transitions in the form (F, mFF′, mF).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal contributions from four different multipole moments compared for four modulation phases corresponding to different orientations of the atomic multipole moments.

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