Abstract

The first observation to the authors’ knowledge of electromagnetic surface waves in a two-dimensional dielectric crystal is reported. By using the coherent microwave transient spectroscopy technique, surface waves are shown to exist at frequencies within the photonic band gap for certain lattice terminations. Energy at gigahertz frequencies is coupled into the surface mode using a prism coupling technique. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. M. Leung, Y. F. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Zhang, S. Satpathy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 495 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Plihal, A. Shambrook, A. A. Maradudin, P. Sheng, Opt. Commun. 80, 199 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Plihal, A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8565 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Kurizki, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2269 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. John, J. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2418 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Otto, Z. Phys. 181, 232 (1965).
  16. Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

1992

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 495 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

M. Plihal, A. Shambrook, A. A. Maradudin, P. Sheng, Opt. Commun. 80, 199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Plihal, A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. John, J. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2418 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Leung, Y. F. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, S. Satpathy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. Kurizki, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2269 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 181, 232 (1965).

Arjavalingam, G.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brommer, K. D.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 495 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalichaouch, R.

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genack, A. Z.

G. Kurizki, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2269 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halbout, J.-M.

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 495 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, J. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2418 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopcsay, G. V.

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kurizki, G.

G. Kurizki, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2269 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, K. M.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Leung, Y. F. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. F.

K. M. Leung, Y. F. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maradudin, A. A.

M. Plihal, A. Shambrook, A. A. Maradudin, P. Sheng, Opt. Commun. 80, 199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Plihal, A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meade, R. D.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 495 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 181, 232 (1965).

Pastol, Y.

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Platzmann, P. M.

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plihal, M.

M. Plihal, A. Shambrook, A. A. Maradudin, P. Sheng, Opt. Commun. 80, 199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Plihal, A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rappe, A. M.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 495 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, W. M.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satpathy, S.

Z. Zhang, S. Satpathy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shambrook, A.

M. Plihal, A. Shambrook, A. A. Maradudin, P. Sheng, Opt. Commun. 80, 199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

M. Plihal, A. Shambrook, A. A. Maradudin, P. Sheng, Opt. Commun. 80, 199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

S. John, J. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2418 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, S. Satpathy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 495 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Plihal, A. Shambrook, A. A. Maradudin, P. Sheng, Opt. Commun. 80, 199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Plihal, A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8565 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. B 44, 10961 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. M. Leung, Y. F. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, S. Satpathy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, K. M. Leung, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2295 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzmann, R. Dalichaouch, D. Smith, S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2017 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3380 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kurizki, A. Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2269 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, J. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2418 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Phys.

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 181, 232 (1965).

Other

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Surface band structure of the (10) surface, shown in the 〈01〉 direction of the Brillouin zone. Shading indicates regions in which radiation can propagate in both the air and the photonic crystal (EE), exponentially decaying in the air and propagating in the crystal (DE), and decaying in the crystal and propagating in the air (ED). (a) Band structure terminated with cylinders, (b) band structure terminated with hemicylinders. The curve that lies in the band gap in (b) shows the localized surface mode (DD).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental configuration for COMITS experiments in TIR. The E field is parallel to the rod axes, i.e., perpendicular to the figure, where d = 0.74 ± 0.03 mm, a = 1.87 mm, and S is varied from 0 to 5 mm. The figure is not to scale; the rods are drawn much larger than their relative size. In fact, ~30 columns of rods overlap the reflecting face of the prism.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitude spectra obtained by numerically Fourier transforming the time-domain data. (a) TIR from prism alone; (b)–(d) cylindrical rod termination with prism–photonic crystal spacings of 1.7, 2.2, and 2.7 mm, respectively; (e)–(g) hemicylindrical rod termination with prism–photonic crystal spacings of 1.7, 2.2, and 2.7 mm, respectively.

Equations (1)

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k p = n 2 π λ sin θ i ,

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