Abstract

We report a novel multiphoton scheme for the detection of atomic hydrogen. Interference of two laser beams near 243 nm crossed at a small angle induces a spatially modulated two-photon excitation (i.e., a grating of excited atoms), which diffracts a third laser beam tuned to either 486 or 656 nm to generate a coherent signal beam. We demonstrate the technique by making H-atom concentration measurements that compare quantitatively with those made using laser-induced fluorescence in low-pressure H2/O2 flames.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. A. Miller, R. J. M. Anderson, L. R. Williams, in Twenty-third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1821–1827 , and references therein.
  2. K. C. Smyth, P. J. H. Tjossem, Appl. Opt. 29, 4891 (1990 ), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1979 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. G. Celii, H. R. Thorsheim, J. E. Butler, L. S. Plano, J. M. Pinneo, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3814 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Danzmann, K. Grutzmacher, B. Wende, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2151 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. A. Buntine, D. W. Chandler, C. C. Hayden, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 707 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Pender, L. Hesselink, Opt. Lett. 10, 264 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Ewart, S. V. O’Leary, Opt. Lett. 11, 279 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Dreier, D. J. Rakestraw, Appl. Phys. 50, 479 (1990).
  10. R. L. Vander Wal, R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “High-resolution investigation of degenerate four-wave mixing in the γ(0, 0) band of nitric oxide,” in Twenty-fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).
  11. T. J. Butenhoff, E. A. Rohlfing, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1595 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Zhang, S. A. Kandel, T. A. W. Wasserman, P. H. Vaccaro, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1640 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 192, 1 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Prior, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 37 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 16.
  16. T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (4)

M. A. Buntine, D. W. Chandler, C. C. Hayden, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 707 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Butenhoff, E. A. Rohlfing, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, S. A. Kandel, T. A. W. Wasserman, P. H. Vaccaro, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 192, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

T. Dreier, D. J. Rakestraw, Appl. Phys. 50, 479 (1990).

K. C. Smyth, P. J. H. Tjossem, Appl. Opt. 29, 4891 (1990 ), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Celii, H. R. Thorsheim, J. E. Butler, L. S. Plano, J. M. Pinneo, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

K. Danzmann, K. Grutzmacher, B. Wende, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2151 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ewart, S. V. O’Leary, Opt. Lett. 11, 279 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

Y. Prior, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 37 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. J. M.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. A. Miller, R. J. M. Anderson, L. R. Williams, in Twenty-third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1821–1827 , and references therein.

Buntine, M. A.

M. A. Buntine, D. W. Chandler, C. C. Hayden, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 707 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Butenhoff, T. J.

T. J. Butenhoff, E. A. Rohlfing, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. E.

F. G. Celii, H. R. Thorsheim, J. E. Butler, L. S. Plano, J. M. Pinneo, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Celii, F. G.

F. G. Celii, H. R. Thorsheim, J. E. Butler, L. S. Plano, J. M. Pinneo, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, D. W.

M. A. Buntine, D. W. Chandler, C. C. Hayden, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 707 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 192, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

K. Danzmann, K. Grutzmacher, B. Wende, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2151 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreier, T.

T. Dreier, D. J. Rakestraw, Appl. Phys. 50, 479 (1990).

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 16.

Ewart, P.

Farrow, R. L.

R. L. Vander Wal, R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “High-resolution investigation of degenerate four-wave mixing in the γ(0, 0) band of nitric oxide,” in Twenty-fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).

Fayer, M. D.

T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1979 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. A. Miller, R. J. M. Anderson, L. R. Williams, in Twenty-third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1821–1827 , and references therein.

Grutzmacher, K.

K. Danzmann, K. Grutzmacher, B. Wende, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2151 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunter, P.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 16.

Hayden, C. C.

M. A. Buntine, D. W. Chandler, C. C. Hayden, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 707 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

Kandel, S. A.

Q. Zhang, S. A. Kandel, T. A. W. Wasserman, P. H. Vaccaro, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 192, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. A.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. A. Miller, R. J. M. Anderson, L. R. Williams, in Twenty-third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1821–1827 , and references therein.

O’Leary, S. V.

Pender, J.

Pinneo, J. M.

F. G. Celii, H. R. Thorsheim, J. E. Butler, L. S. Plano, J. M. Pinneo, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Plano, L. S.

F. G. Celii, H. R. Thorsheim, J. E. Butler, L. S. Plano, J. M. Pinneo, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 16.

Prior, Y.

Y. Prior, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 37 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rakestraw, D. J.

T. Dreier, D. J. Rakestraw, Appl. Phys. 50, 479 (1990).

R. L. Vander Wal, R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “High-resolution investigation of degenerate four-wave mixing in the γ(0, 0) band of nitric oxide,” in Twenty-fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).

Rohlfing, E. A.

T. J. Butenhoff, E. A. Rohlfing, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rose, T. S.

T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, K. C.

Thorsheim, H. R.

F. G. Celii, H. R. Thorsheim, J. E. Butler, L. S. Plano, J. M. Pinneo, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tjossem, P. J. H.

Vaccaro, P. H.

Q. Zhang, S. A. Kandel, T. A. W. Wasserman, P. H. Vaccaro, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vander Wal, R. L.

R. L. Vander Wal, R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “High-resolution investigation of degenerate four-wave mixing in the γ(0, 0) band of nitric oxide,” in Twenty-fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).

Wackerle, G.

T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, T. A. W.

Q. Zhang, S. A. Kandel, T. A. W. Wasserman, P. H. Vaccaro, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wende, B.

K. Danzmann, K. Grutzmacher, B. Wende, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2151 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, L. R.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. A. Miller, R. J. M. Anderson, L. R. Williams, in Twenty-third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1821–1827 , and references therein.

Wilson, W. L.

T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, S. A. Kandel, T. A. W. Wasserman, P. H. Vaccaro, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Dreier, D. J. Rakestraw, Appl. Phys. 50, 479 (1990).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 192, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Prior, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 37 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. G. Celii, H. R. Thorsheim, J. E. Butler, L. S. Plano, J. M. Pinneo, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3814 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

M. A. Buntine, D. W. Chandler, C. C. Hayden, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 707 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Butenhoff, E. A. Rohlfing, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, S. A. Kandel, T. A. W. Wasserman, P. H. Vaccaro, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 1640 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Rose, W. L. Wilson, G. Wackerle, M. D. Fayer, J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Danzmann, K. Grutzmacher, B. Wende, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2151 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. L. Vander Wal, R. L. Farrow, D. J. Rakestraw, “High-resolution investigation of degenerate four-wave mixing in the γ(0, 0) band of nitric oxide,” in Twenty-fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. A. Miller, R. J. M. Anderson, L. R. Williams, in Twenty-third Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 1821–1827 , and references therein.

H. J. Eichler, P. Gunter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), p. 16.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Insets: energy-level and vector phase-matching diagrams for H showing the two-photon excitation (ωex), probe (ωpr), and signal (ωsig) transitions, including schematically a single virtual level υ in place of a sum over all nonresonant states. LIF requires only one excitation beam (n = 1 → n − 2), whereas LIG requires interference between two excitation beams. Observed LIG and LIF probe spectra were recorded with the excitation wavelength fixed and are broadened mainly by the strong probe intensity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observed LIG and LIF signals in atomic hydrogen saturate comparably with increasing probe intensity while yielding similar line shapes (see Fig. 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Atomic hydrogen concentration profiles of slightly rich (ϕ = 1.2) H2/O2 flames as determined simultaneously from integrated LIG and LIF signal intensities at two different pressures (same scale). The concentration is proportional to the square root of the LIG signal.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S LIG | χ ( 5 ) | 2 N 1 2 ( α 12 ) 2 ( σ 23 ) 2 τ 2 2 I ex 4 I pr L 2 × Im [ g ( δ ex , Γ 12 ) ] 2 | g ( δ pr , Γ 23 ) | 2 ,
S LIF Im | χ ( 5 ) | 2 N 1 α 12 σ 23 τ 2 τ 3 I ex 2 I pr L A 32 × Im [ g ( δ ex , Γ 12 ) ] Im [ g ( δ pr , Γ 23 ) ] ,

Metrics