Abstract

A β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator (BBO OPO) serves as the tunable source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). Two variants of this approach are devised to make rotationally resolved CARS measurements of nitrogen in air. In the scanned CARS technique, the BBO OPO operates in its continuously tuned, narrow-band mode with injection-seeding control of OPO signal wavelength. In the other technique, a free-running BBO OPO is used for single-shot, multiplex CARS measurements.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988); D. A. Greenhalgh, in Advances in Nonlinear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 193–251.
  2. J. G. Haub, M. J. Jonhson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallen-stein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. Orr, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 176.
  7. B. J. Orr, H.-D. Barth, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 258–260.
  8. L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1164 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137.
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. G. Haub, M. J. Jonhson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallen-stein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1969

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Barth, H.-D.

B. J. Orr, H.-D. Barth, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 258–260.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Brüggemann, D.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137.
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Danielmeyer, H. G.

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988); D. A. Greenhalgh, in Advances in Nonlinear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 193–251.

Fan, Y. X.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

B. J. Orr, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 176.

Haub, J. G.

J. G. Haub, M. J. Jonhson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallen-stein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Orr, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 176.

B. J. Orr, H.-D. Barth, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 258–260.

Herbst, R. L.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137.
[CrossRef]

Hertzberg, J.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Herziger, G.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, A. D.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. J.

B. J. Orr, H.-D. Barth, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 258–260.

B. J. Orr, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 176.

Jonhson, M. J.

J. G. Haub, M. J. Jonhson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallen-stein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knoche, K.-F.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nolting, J.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

J. G. Haub, M. J. Jonhson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallen-stein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Orr, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 176.

B. J. Orr, H.-D. Barth, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 258–260.

Palmer, R. E.

Rahn, L. A.

Schröder, T.

B. J. Orr, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 176.

Wallenstein, R.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Orr, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 176.

Wallen-stein, R.

J. G. Haub, M. J. Jonhson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallen-stein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Waschke, Y.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wies, B.

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

D. Brüggemann, J. Hertzberg, B. Wies, Y. Waschke, R. Noll, K.-F. Knoche, G. Herziger, Appl. Phys. B 55, 378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. G. Haub, M. J. Jonhson, B. J. Orr, R. Wallen-stein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1718 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, J. Nolting, R. Wallenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2014 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, H. G. Danielmeyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 171 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. X. Fan, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, C. Chen, A. D. Jiang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Other

B. J. Orr, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, A. Fix, T. Schröder, R. Wallenstein, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 176.

B. J. Orr, H.-D. Barth, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, in International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 258–260.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y.-R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–137.
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988); D. A. Greenhalgh, in Advances in Nonlinear Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 193–251.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a spectroscopic system for CARS measurements, using a tunable BBO OPO. Radiation from a single-mode Nd:YAG laser system is the source of 355-nm OPO pump radiation and also as the narrow-band 532-nm Raman pump beam for the CARS process. Visible OPO signal radiation (wavelength λsignal) serves as the Raman Stokes beam, combined (collinearity in our experiments) with the 532-nm Raman pump radiation and focused into the sample zone (inside a cylindrical oven), while the accompanying OPO idler radiation (λidler) is rejected. The anti-Stokes beam generated by the CARS process is filtered, passed through a monochromator, and detected by a photomultiplier (in the case of scanned CARS) or photodiode array (in the case of multiplex CARS). For scanned CARS experiments, the BBO output wavelengths are controlled (see dashed portion) by injection seeding at either the signal or idler wavelength, with narrow-band radiation (λseed) from a low-intensity tunable source (a dye laser in our experiments).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanned CARS spectra of the 2330-cm−1 Q branch in the fundamental rovibrational Raman band of nitrogen, N2, in air at a temperature of 22 °C. Trace (a) is recorded with narrow-band signal radiation (~607 nm, ~0.3 mJ per 4-ns pulse) from an injection-seeded BBO OPO as a source of Stokes radiation. A single-mode Nd:YAG laser generates 532-nm Raman pump radiation (~1.5 mJ per 6-ns pulse). Trace (b) is a corresponding CARS spectrum, with a dye laser generating the Stokes radiation. Trace (c) is a computer simulation of the observed CARS spectra in traces (a) and (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multiplex CARS spectra of the 2330-cm−1 Q branch in the fundamental rovibrational Raman band of nitrogen, N2, in air. Trace (a) is recorded in a single shot at a temperature of 21 °C, using a 1-m monochromator and array detector; the 532-nm Raman pump radiation is from a single-mode Nd:YAG laser (~15 mJ per 6-ns pulse), and broadband Stokes radiation (~13 cm−1 FWHM, centered at ~607 nm, ~5.5 mJ per 4-ns pulse) is generated by a free-running BBO OPO. Trace (b) is as for trace (a) but with a temperature of 900 °C and 532-nm Raman pump pulse energy of ~53 mJ. Trace (c) is a computer simulation (with a detector-limited linewidth of 0.35 cm−1) of the CARS spectrum at 900 °C, showing the effects of limited OPO signal bandwidth in the corresponding observed spectrum [trace (b)].

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