Abstract

Relatively fast self-pumped phase-conjugate and four-wave-mixing rise times are reported in n-type cobalt-doped barium titanate. With the crystal oriented in a 45° cut as compared with the same crystal in a 0° cut we find a factor of 3 decrease in the 0–90% rise time to 800 ms with 25-mW input power at 514.5 nm. Also, the self-pumped phase-conjugate reflectivity increases from 20% to 40%. We deduce that the phase conjugation is from internally seeded stimulated photorefractive backscattering. The four-wave-mixing rise time of the 45°-cut crystal is 4 ms with a reflectivity of 48% when the pumping beams are derived from self-pumped phase conjugation that has an input power of 25 mW.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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1992 (2)

1991 (2)

1989 (2)

D. M. Pepper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2945 (1989); Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 28, 4808 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (2)

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

Bacher, G. D.

Chang, J. Y.

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 10, 408 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Chiou, T. Y. Chang, M. Khoshnevisan, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 40; personal communication (Rockwell Science Center, Thousand Oaks, Calif.).

T. Y. Chang, “Nonlinear optical studies of photorefractive barium titanate: parameter measurements and phase conjugation,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1986).

Chiou, A. E.

A. E. Chiou, T. Y. Chang, M. Khoshnevisan, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 40; personal communication (Rockwell Science Center, Thousand Oaks, Calif.).

Eason, R. W.

Eliseev, V. V.

Fainman, Y.

Feinberg, J.

Fisher, R. A.

Ford, J. E.

Garrett, M. H.

Hellwarth, R. W.

James, S. W.

Jenssen, H. P.

Khoshnevisan, M.

A. E. Chiou, T. Y. Chang, M. Khoshnevisan, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 40; personal communication (Rockwell Science Center, Thousand Oaks, Calif.).

Klein, M.

M. Klein, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications III, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 213.

Lam, J.

J. Lam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

McDonald, K. R.

Moore, T. R.

Mullen, R. A.

Nowak, A. V.

Pepper, D.

Pepper, D. M.

D. M. Pepper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2945 (1989); Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilipetsky, N. F.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

Shkunov, V. V.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

Valley, G. C.

Vickers, D. J.

Warde, C.

West, L.

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

Zozulya, A. A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Lam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. M. Pepper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2945 (1989); Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

T. Y. Chang, “Nonlinear optical studies of photorefractive barium titanate: parameter measurements and phase conjugation,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1986).

A. E. Chiou, T. Y. Chang, M. Khoshnevisan, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 40; personal communication (Rockwell Science Center, Thousand Oaks, Calif.).

M. Klein, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications III, P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 213.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of SPPC in a 45°-cut n-type BaTiO3:Co crystal. The input beam was incident upon the crystal face from the left at an angle of ~50° with respect to the normal of that face, (b) Diagram showing the direction of the c axis and the grating wave vector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SPPC reflectivities as a function of input power and crystallographic orientation, 0° and 45°, with the same crystal measured at 514.5 nm uncorrected for Fresnel losses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SPPC rise time for n-type BaTiO3:Co in a 45° orientation determined with 514.5-nm illumination. The rise time was determined from the time the shutter opens until the phase-conjugate signal has reached 90% of saturation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of the photorefractive gain as a function of the angle between the grating wave vector and the c axis (see Ref. 11).

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