Abstract

A method is proposed for characterizing poled-polymer waveguides intended for electro-optic integrated-optical-circuit applications. It allows the measurement of the waveguide refractive index before and after poling and provides the means to estimate the material’s electro-optic coefficient, r33, in adjacent areas on a single sample to ensure that these parameters are determined under exactly the same fabrication and poling conditions. The new electro-optic-polymer 4-nitrophenylcarbamic acid polyvinyl ester was characterized to demonstrate the operation of the device.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).
  2. C. C. Teng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1538 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Shuto, M. Amano, T. Kaino, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1003 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. S. Schildkraut, Appl. Opt. 29, 2839 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Yokoh, N. Ogata, Polym. J. 24, 63 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (3)

C. C. Teng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1538 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yokoh, N. Ogata, Polym. J. 24, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. Shuto, M. Amano, T. Kaino, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1003 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schildkraut, Appl. Opt. 29, 2839 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Amano, M.

Y. Shuto, M. Amano, T. Kaino, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1003 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baquero, P.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Copeland, M. J.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Diemeer, M. B. J.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Duchet, C.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Fabre, P.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Kaino, T.

Y. Shuto, M. Amano, T. Kaino, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1003 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Man, H. T.

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McDonach, A.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Möhlmann, G. R.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Nishihara, H.

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, N.

Y. Yokoh, N. Ogata, Polym. J. 24, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, R.

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schildkraut, J. S.

Shuto, Y.

Y. Shuto, M. Amano, T. Kaino, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1003 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suyten, F. M. M.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1538 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trommel, E. S.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Ura, S.

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Van Tomme, E.

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

Yokoh, Y.

Y. Yokoh, N. Ogata, Polym. J. 24, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. C. Teng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1538 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Teng, H. T. Man, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Shuto, M. Amano, T. Kaino, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1003 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Ura, R. Ohyama, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Polym. J. (1)

Y. Yokoh, N. Ogata, Polym. J. 24, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

G. R. Möhlmann, W. H. G. Horsthuis, A. McDonach, M. J. Copeland, C. Duchet, P. Fabre, M. B. J. Diemeer, E. S. Trommel, F. M. M. Suyten, E. Van Tomme, P. Baquero, P. Van Daele, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 215 (1990).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characterization device cross section. The characterization of the test polymer (either poled or unpoled) is achieved by exciting a guided mode with probe beam A incident upon a grating coupler to obtain refractive-index data. Monitoring the reflected intensity from probe beam B when an oscillating voltage is applied to the electrodes provides a means for calculating r33.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dispersion for AcN-PVA before and after poling (Ep = 100 V/μm, Tp = 125 °C, and tp = 30 min).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

EO coefficient r33 versus poling field strength Ep at λ = 0.826 μm, Vm = 150 V, f= 700 Hz, and poling temperature Tp = 125 °C.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fabrication Data for Test Characterization Device

Tables Icon

Table 2 Resistance Data for the Different Layers of the Test Device for a 3 mm × 3 mm Cross-Sectional Area

Equations (2)

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N = sin θ n + λ Λ eff ,
r 3 = 3 λ n 2 sin 2 θ r 4 π n 2 V m sin 2 θ r I m I c ,

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