Abstract

A quantitative comparison of the photorefractive effect in proton-exchanged (PE), annealed-proton-exchanged (APE), and Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides in the visible region is reported. In the low-intensity region, the optically induced index change in PE/APE waveguides is almost 3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of Ti-diffused waveguides for a given intensity, primarily as a result of the increased dark conductivity owing to proton exchange. However, the photorefractive index change at higher intensities is almost the same for all the waveguides. Our results indicate that the optically induced space-charge field is relatively independent of the concentration or the valence state of iron impurities and the waveguide fabrication process.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Becker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Fujiwara, X. F. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Fujiwara, H. Mori, Y. Fujii, Ferroelectrics 95, 133 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Glass, Opt. Eng. 17, 470 (1978).
  6. R. Göring, Z. Yuan-Ling, St. Steinberg, Appl. Phys. A 55, 97 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Becker, R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1024 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Grousson, M. Henry, S. Mallick, S. L. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3012 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. McMeekin, R. M. De La Rue, W. Johnstone, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 163 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. G. Suchoski, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, Opt. Lett. 13, 1050 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Krätzig, Ferroelectrics 21, 635 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Fujiwara, A. Terashima, H. Mori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2718 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. A. Augustov, K. K. Shvarts, Appl. Phys. 21, 191 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (4)

T. Fujiwara, X. F. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Göring, Z. Yuan-Ling, St. Steinberg, Appl. Phys. A 55, 97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. McMeekin, R. M. De La Rue, W. Johnstone, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

T. Fujiwara, A. Terashima, H. Mori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2718 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, H. Mori, Y. Fujii, Ferroelectrics 95, 133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

R. A. Becker, R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

R. A. Becker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Grousson, M. Henry, S. Mallick, S. L. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3012 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

P. A. Augustov, K. K. Shvarts, Appl. Phys. 21, 191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

E. Krätzig, Ferroelectrics 21, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, Opt. Eng. 17, 470 (1978).

Augustov, P. A.

P. A. Augustov, K. K. Shvarts, Appl. Phys. 21, 191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. A.

R. A. Becker, R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Becker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. F.

T. Fujiwara, X. F. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

S. McMeekin, R. M. De La Rue, W. Johnstone, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Diéguez, E.

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Findakly, T. K.

Fujii, Y.

T. Fujiwara, H. Mori, Y. Fujii, Ferroelectrics 95, 133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, X. F. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, H. Mori, Y. Fujii, Ferroelectrics 95, 133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, A. Terashima, H. Mori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2718 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, Opt. Eng. 17, 470 (1978).

Göring, R.

R. Göring, Z. Yuan-Ling, St. Steinberg, Appl. Phys. A 55, 97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grousson, R.

R. Grousson, M. Henry, S. Mallick, S. L. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3012 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hay, G.

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Henry, M.

R. Grousson, M. Henry, S. Mallick, S. L. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3012 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Johnstone, W.

S. McMeekin, R. M. De La Rue, W. Johnstone, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

E. Krätzig, Ferroelectrics 21, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

Loni, A.

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

López, F. J.

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mallick, S.

R. Grousson, M. Henry, S. Mallick, S. L. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3012 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McMeekin, S.

S. McMeekin, R. M. De La Rue, W. Johnstone, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mori, H.

T. Fujiwara, H. Mori, Y. Fujii, Ferroelectrics 95, 133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, A. Terashima, H. Mori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2718 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, G. E.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

T. Fujiwara, X. F. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rice, C. E.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shvarts, K. K.

P. A. Augustov, K. K. Shvarts, Appl. Phys. 21, 191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

T. Fujiwara, X. F. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, St.

R. Göring, Z. Yuan-Ling, St. Steinberg, Appl. Phys. A 55, 97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suchoski, P. G.

Terashima, A.

T. Fujiwara, A. Terashima, H. Mori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2718 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Veselka, J. J.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

R. A. Becker, R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Winfield, J. M.

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. L.

R. Grousson, M. Henry, S. Mallick, S. L. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3012 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yuan-Ling, Z.

R. Göring, Z. Yuan-Ling, St. Steinberg, Appl. Phys. A 55, 97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (1)

P. A. Augustov, K. K. Shvarts, Appl. Phys. 21, 191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

R. Göring, Z. Yuan-Ling, St. Steinberg, Appl. Phys. A 55, 97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. A. Becker, R. C. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1024 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Becker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, X. F. Cao, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, A. Terashima, H. Mori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2718 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (2)

E. Krätzig, Ferroelectrics 21, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, H. Mori, Y. Fujii, Ferroelectrics 95, 133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. McMeekin, R. M. De La Rue, W. Johnstone, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 163 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Grousson, M. Henry, S. Mallick, S. L. Xu, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3012 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. M. Glass, Opt. Eng. 17, 470 (1978).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup to measure the photorefractive effect for Ti-diffused and PE/APE waveguides at irradiation wavelengths of 633 and 488 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity dependence of the saturated index change Δns for Ti-diffused, PE, and APE waveguides at visible irradiation. Solid and dotted curves represent the best fit of the data to Eq. (5).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of Parameters Describing the Photorefractive Effect for Ti-Diffused, PE, and APE Waveguides

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n ( t ) = Δ n s [ 1 exp ( t / τ ) ] ,
Δ n s ( I ir ) = n e 3 r 33 2 κ α I ir σ d + σ ph ,
σ ph = a α I ir ,
a = e h ν μ τ 0 ϕ ,
Δ n s ( I ir ) = A I ir 1 + B I ir ,
A = n e 3 r 33 κ α 2 σ d
B = a α σ d .
τ = r 0 σ d + σ ph ,
1 τ = 1 τ d + a α r 0 I ir ,
τ d = r 0 σ d .
Δ n s ( I ir ) = A B ( I ir ) 1 1 / n = n e 3 r 33 2 E s ( I ir ) ,
E s ( I ir ) = κ a ( I ir ) 1 1 / n
E s ( I ir ) = L μ τ 0 ( I ir ) 1 1 / n .
Δ n s ( I ir ) = n e 3 r 33 2 L μ τ 0 ( I ir ) 1 1 / n .

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