Abstract

An e-beam lithographic technique is described that produces multiple discrete phase levels as a surface-relief structure directly in positive e-beam resist. Processing techniques are presented for two positive e-beam resists: EBR-9 and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). This fabrication technology is experimentally applied to produce sawtooth (blazed) gratings and multiphase-level numeric-type computer-generated holograms (i.e., kinoforms).

© 1993 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, Opt. Lett. 7, 578 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, Appl. Opt. 26, 587 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Shiono, K. Setsune, Opt. Lett. 15, 84 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, S. Hård, B. Nilsson, Opt. Lett. 15, 568 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. J. Swanson, MIT Tech. Rep. 854, 17 (1989).
  6. A. W. Lohmann, D. P. Paris, Appl. Opt. 5, 1739 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Burch, Proc. IEEE 55, 599 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

1990

1989

G. J. Swanson, MIT Tech. Rep. 854, 17 (1989).

1987

1982

1972

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

1969

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967

Burch, J. J.

J. J. Burch, Proc. IEEE 55, 599 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ekberg, M.

Fujita, T.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Hård, S.

Hirsch, P. M.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, J. A.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

Larsson, M.

Lesem, L. B.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Nilsson, B.

Nishihara, H.

Paris, D. P.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Setsune, K.

Shiono, T.

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, MIT Tech. Rep. 854, 17 (1989).

Wasa, K.

Yamazaki, O.

Appl. Opt.

IBM J. Res. Dev.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, J. A. Jordan, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 150 (1969).
[CrossRef]

MIT Tech. Rep.

G. J. Swanson, MIT Tech. Rep. 854, 17 (1989).

Opt. Lett.

Optik

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Proc. IEEE

J. J. Burch, Proc. IEEE 55, 599 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Depth versus electron dose for EBR-9 resist, 2-min MIBK development, 30-s IPA rinse. The equation shows second-order polynomial fit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Depth versus electron dose for PMMA resist, 1-min 3:1 methylethyl ketone:methanol development, 15-s 1:3 MIBK:IPA rinse. The equation shows second-order polynomial fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental cross section of linear blazed grating with 16 phase levels of 4.0-μm width (period, 64 μm). The profile was measured with a Wyko TOPO-2D optical profilometer (1.30-μm horizontal sampling distance).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental first-order reconstruction of the University of California, San Diego, crest kinoform.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d m = λ ( n 1 ) ,

Metrics