Abstract

A heterodyne interferometer that uses a vibrating sample has been constructed for surface diagnostics. This interferometer provides a detailed profile of the local slope and/or roughness of a surface. A complete three-dimensional image of a surface can be obtained.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C.-C. Huang, Opt. Eng. 23, 365 (1984).
  2. H. J. Matthews, D. K. Hamilton, C. Sheppard, Appl. Opt. 25, 2372 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, K. Higuchi, T. Maruyama, Appl. Opt. 30, 3623 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. W. See, M. Vaez Iravani, H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Opt. 24, 2373 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. K. Wickramasinghe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 897, 3 (1988).
  6. C. C. Davis, Nucl. Phys. B 6, 290 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. L. Mazzoni, K. Cho, C. C. Davis, Opt. Lett. 16, 614 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. Collet, R. Loudon, C. Gardiner, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 881 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (2)

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, K. Higuchi, T. Maruyama, Appl. Opt. 30, 3623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Mazzoni, K. Cho, C. C. Davis, Opt. Lett. 16, 614 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

C. C. Davis, Nucl. Phys. B 6, 290 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. K. Wickramasinghe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 897, 3 (1988).

1987 (1)

M. J. Collet, R. Loudon, C. Gardiner, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 881 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

C.-C. Huang, Opt. Eng. 23, 365 (1984).

Cho, K.

Collet, M. J.

M. J. Collet, R. Loudon, C. Gardiner, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 881 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

Gardiner, C.

M. J. Collet, R. Loudon, C. Gardiner, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 881 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. K.

Higuchi, K.

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, K. Higuchi, T. Maruyama, Appl. Opt. 30, 3623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-C.

C.-C. Huang, Opt. Eng. 23, 365 (1984).

Loudon, R.

M. J. Collet, R. Loudon, C. Gardiner, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 881 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, T.

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, K. Higuchi, T. Maruyama, Appl. Opt. 30, 3623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, H. J.

Mazzoni, D. L.

Sasaki, O.

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, K. Higuchi, T. Maruyama, Appl. Opt. 30, 3623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

See, C. W.

Sheppard, C.

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, O. Sasaki, K. Higuchi, T. Maruyama, Appl. Opt. 30, 3623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vaez Iravani, M.

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

H. K. Wickramasinghe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 897, 3 (1988).

C. W. See, M. Vaez Iravani, H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Opt. 24, 2373 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. J. Collet, R. Loudon, C. Gardiner, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 881 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Phys. B (1)

C. C. Davis, Nucl. Phys. B 6, 290 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C.-C. Huang, Opt. Eng. 23, 365 (1984).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

H. K. Wickramasinghe, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 897, 3 (1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. OI, optical isolator; BPF, bandpass filter; VCO, voltage-controlled oscillator; M, mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase modulation caused by lateral vibration of a curved surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Low-resolution SCSM image of a scratched and indented region on an aluminum-coated mirror, (b) Corresponding scanning-electron-microscopy image of (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High-resolution SCSM image of a cross-shaped scratch mark on an aluminum-coated mirror.

Equations (5)

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i s | E L | 2 + | E S | 2 + 2 | E L | | E S | cos ( Δ ω t + Δ ϕ ) ,
Δ ϕ = ϕ m + ϕ s ,
δ z = α δ x = α δ 0 sin ω m t ,
ϕ m = 4 π λ δ z = 4 π λ α δ 0 sin ω m t .
Δ ϕ min = h ν Δ f 24 η P ,

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