Abstract

The basic idea of using a hollow-core waveguide as an absorption cell in a spectroscopic gas measurement system is proposed. Measurements of NH3 gas concentration were made with different absorption methods at an absorption wavelength of 10.719 μm and a nonabsorption wavelength of 10.697 μm and by using a 1-m hollow-core waveguide whose transmission loss was approximately 1 dB/m in a CO2 laser with wavelengths ranging from 10.261 to 10.719 μm. The hollow-core part of the waveguide was filled with NH3 gas to form an absorption cell through which the two wavelengths were transmitted. The minimum detectable concentration level of the measurement system was limited to 5 parts in 106 because of the limitations of the manometers used in the gas-concentration monitor.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 9th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Kinugawa, Japan, 1983), paper 22 (in Japanese).
  2. Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 10th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Fukui, Japan, 1985), paper E14 (in Japanese).
  3. Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, IECE Tech. Rep. QE 85-16 (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1985) (in Japanese).
  4. T. Kano, Y. Saito, T. Kano, in Proceedings of Symposium of the Research Institute of Electrical Communication (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, 1985), p. 165 (in Japanese).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Krammer, Appl. Opt. 17, 316 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. E. Marhic, L. I. Kwan, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 609 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 430 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Croitoru, J. Dror, I. Gannot, Appl. Opt. 29, 1805 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. B. Levy, K. D. Laakmann, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 605, 57 (1986).
  15. A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1510 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Alaluf, J. Dror, A. Katzir, N. Croitoru, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 256 (1990).
  17. S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Electron. Lett. 27, 709 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Saito, S. Sato, M. Myagi, Opt. Eng. 31, 1793 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1368, 2 (1990).
  20. Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 29, 2213 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

M. Saito, S. Sato, M. Myagi, Opt. Eng. 31, 1793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Electron. Lett. 27, 709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1368, 2 (1990).

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, I. Gannot, Appl. Opt. 29, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 29, 2213 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1510 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Alaluf, J. Dror, A. Katzir, N. Croitoru, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 256 (1990).

1987

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. B. Levy, K. D. Laakmann, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 605, 57 (1986).

1983

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 430 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978

M. E. Marhic, L. I. Kwan, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 609 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Krammer, Appl. Opt. 17, 316 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

E. Garmire, T. McMahon, M. Bass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 254 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

H. Nishihara, T. Inoue, J. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 391 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, Y.

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 430 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alaluf, M.

M. Alaluf, J. Dror, A. Katzir, N. Croitoru, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 256 (1990).

Bass, M.

E. Garmire, T. McMahon, M. Bass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 254 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Croitoru, N.

M. Alaluf, J. Dror, A. Katzir, N. Croitoru, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 256 (1990).

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, I. Gannot, Appl. Opt. 29, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devereux, R. W. J.

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dror, J.

M. Alaluf, J. Dror, A. Katzir, N. Croitoru, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 256 (1990).

N. Croitoru, J. Dror, I. Gannot, Appl. Opt. 29, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, M.

M. E. Marhic, L. I. Kwan, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 609 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gannot, I.

Garmire, E.

E. Garmire, T. McMahon, M. Bass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 254 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, C. C.

Harrington, J. A.

C. C. Gregory, J. A. Harrington, Appl. Opt. 32, 3978 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Electron. Lett. 27, 709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1368, 2 (1990).

Hidaka, T.

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hongo, A.

A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1510 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 29, 2213 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 430 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

H. Nishihara, T. Inoue, J. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 391 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, R. M.

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kanaya, T.

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, IECE Tech. Rep. QE 85-16 (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1985) (in Japanese).

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 10th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Fukui, Japan, 1985), paper E14 (in Japanese).

Kano, T.

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, IECE Tech. Rep. QE 85-16 (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1985) (in Japanese).

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 10th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Fukui, Japan, 1985), paper E14 (in Japanese).

T. Kano, Y. Saito, T. Kano, in Proceedings of Symposium of the Research Institute of Electrical Communication (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, 1985), p. 165 (in Japanese).

T. Kano, Y. Saito, T. Kano, in Proceedings of Symposium of the Research Institute of Electrical Communication (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, 1985), p. 165 (in Japanese).

Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 9th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Kinugawa, Japan, 1983), paper 22 (in Japanese).

Katzir, A.

M. Alaluf, J. Dror, A. Katzir, N. Croitoru, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 256 (1990).

Kawakami, S.

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 430 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

H. Nishihara, T. Inoue, J. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 391 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Krammer, H.

Kwan, L. I.

M. E. Marhic, L. I. Kwan, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 609 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Laakmann, K. D.

M. B. Levy, K. D. Laakmann, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 605, 57 (1986).

Levy, M. B.

M. B. Levy, K. D. Laakmann, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 605, 57 (1986).

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic, L. I. Kwan, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 609 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, K.

A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1510 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, Y.

A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1510 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 29, 2213 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMahon, T.

E. Garmire, T. McMahon, M. Bass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 254 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

Y. Matsuura, A. Hongo, M. Miyagi, Appl. Opt. 29, 2213 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1510 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 430 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, T.

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Morosawa, K.

A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1510 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Myagi, M.

M. Saito, S. Sato, M. Myagi, Opt. Eng. 31, 1793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

H. Nishihara, T. Inoue, J. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 391 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, A.

Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 9th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Kinugawa, Japan, 1983), paper 22 (in Japanese).

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, IECE Tech. Rep. QE 85-16 (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1985) (in Japanese).

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 10th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Fukui, Japan, 1985), paper E14 (in Japanese).

Saggese, S. J.

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Electron. Lett. 27, 709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1368, 2 (1990).

Saito, M.

M. Saito, S. Sato, M. Myagi, Opt. Eng. 31, 1793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 9th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Kinugawa, Japan, 1983), paper 22 (in Japanese).

T. Kano, Y. Saito, T. Kano, in Proceedings of Symposium of the Research Institute of Electrical Communication (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, 1985), p. 165 (in Japanese).

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, IECE Tech. Rep. QE 85-16 (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1985) (in Japanese).

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 10th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Fukui, Japan, 1985), paper E14 (in Japanese).

Sato, S.

M. Saito, S. Sato, M. Myagi, Opt. Eng. 31, 1793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, J.

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shiota, T.

A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1510 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Electron. Lett. 27, 709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1368, 2 (1990).

Wilson, S. J.

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Miyagi, A. Hongo, Y. Aizawa, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 430 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishihara, T. Inoue, J. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 391 (1974).
[CrossRef]

E. Garmire, T. McMahon, M. Bass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 254 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, L. I. Kwan, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 609 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Electron. Lett. 27, 709 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. J. Wilson, R. M. Jenkins, R. W. J. Devereux, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 52 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Hongo, K. Morosawa, K. Matsumoto, T. Shiota, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1510 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Hidaka, T. Morikawa, J. Shimada, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4467 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Saito, S. Sato, M. Myagi, Opt. Eng. 31, 1793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

S. J. Saggese, J. A. Harrington, G. H. Sigel, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1368, 2 (1990).

M. Alaluf, J. Dror, A. Katzir, N. Croitoru, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1228, 256 (1990).

M. B. Levy, K. D. Laakmann, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 605, 57 (1986).

Other

Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 9th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Kinugawa, Japan, 1983), paper 22 (in Japanese).

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, in Proceedings of 10th Japanese Laser Radar Symposium (Laser Radar Society of Japan, Fukui, Japan, 1985), paper E14 (in Japanese).

Y. Saito, T. Kanaya, A. Nomura, T. Kano, IECE Tech. Rep. QE 85-16 (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1985) (in Japanese).

T. Kano, Y. Saito, T. Kano, in Proceedings of Symposium of the Research Institute of Electrical Communication (Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, 1985), p. 165 (in Japanese).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic setup for gas monitoring with a hollow-core waveguide as an absorption cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the hollow- (gas-) core refractive index with NH3 gas concentration at λoff = 10.679 μm, with γ = ω/1000 (curve 1), γ = ω/100 (curve 2), and γ = ω/10) (curve 3). γ is the damping factor, and ω is resonance frequency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of experimental transmitted (output) laser power (open circles) and calculated results (solid curve) with the simple Lambert-Beer law at λoff = 10.679 μm. versus NH3 gas concentrations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for the NH3 gas measurement system with the hollow-core waveguide. A/D, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of NH3 gas-concentration measurements: inlet, outlet, and correction points indicate each result measured by the inlet and outlet manometers and the corrected value, respectively.

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