Abstract

Temperature effects in a Brillouin fiber ring laser have been investigated. The results show that temperature plays a major role in many different laser characteristics such as lasing frequency, mode hopping, spontaneous pulsing, and frequency mode pulling. Thermal coefficients for the Brillouin frequency shift and for the frequency difference between the pump wave and the first-Stokes wave were measured and are consistent with theoretical predictions based on published basic material parameters. Experimental observation and measurement of the temperature dependence of the spontaneous pulsing threshold show that temperature is a key parameter that may be important in uncovering the physical mechanism underlying spontaneous pulsing.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1993

S. Huang, K. Toyama, P.-A. Nicati, L. Thevenaz, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1795, 48 (1993).

1991

1990

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, Appl. Opt. 29, 2219 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 2, 352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

P. Bayvel, I. P. Giles, P. M. Radmore, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Bayvel, I. P. Giles, Opt. Lett. 14, 581 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

I. Bar-Joseph, A. Dienes, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, H. H. Yaffe, Opt. Commun. 59, 296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Trach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, Electron. Lett. 22, 1011 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Carrol, C. D. Coccoli, D. Cardarelli, G. T. Coate, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 169 (1986).

1983

D. Cotter, J. Opt. Commun. 4, 10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

N. Shibata, S. Shibata, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 17, 310 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Ponikvar, S. Ezekiel, Opt. Lett. 6, 398 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

A. S. Pine, Phys. Rev. 185, 1187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 1st ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), Chap. 9, pp. 263–288.

Bar-Joseph, I.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. Dienes, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, H. H. Yaffe, Opt. Commun. 59, 296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

P. Bayvel, I. P. Giles, Opt. Lett. 14, 581 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bayvel, I. P. Giles, P. M. Radmore, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cardarelli, D.

R. Carrol, C. D. Coccoli, D. Cardarelli, G. T. Coate, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 169 (1986).

Carrol, R.

R. Carrol, C. D. Coccoli, D. Cardarelli, G. T. Coate, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 169 (1986).

Chraplyvy, A. R.

R. W. Trach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, Electron. Lett. 22, 1011 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Coate, G. T.

R. Carrol, C. D. Coccoli, D. Cardarelli, G. T. Coate, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 169 (1986).

Coccoli, C. D.

R. Carrol, C. D. Coccoli, D. Cardarelli, G. T. Coate, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 169 (1986).

Cotter, D.

D. Cotter, J. Opt. Commun. 4, 10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Derosier, R. M.

R. W. Trach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, Electron. Lett. 22, 1011 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. Dienes, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, H. H. Yaffe, Opt. Commun. 59, 296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Edahiro, T.

N. Shibata, S. Shibata, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 17, 310 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ezekiel, S.

Friesem, A. A.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. Dienes, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, H. H. Yaffe, Opt. Commun. 59, 296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Giles, I. P.

P. Bayvel, I. P. Giles, Opt. Lett. 14, 581 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bayvel, I. P. Giles, P. M. Radmore, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 2, 352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, Appl. Opt. 29, 2219 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, K. Toyama, P.-A. Nicati, L. Thevenaz, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1795, 48 (1993).

K. Toyama, S. Huang, P.-A. Nicati, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), pp. 11–14.

Kim, B. Y.

S. Huang, K. Toyama, P.-A. Nicati, L. Thevenaz, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1795, 48 (1993).

K. Toyama, S. Huang, P.-A. Nicati, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), pp. 11–14.

Kurashima, T.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, Appl. Opt. 29, 2219 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 2, 352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lichtman, E.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. Dienes, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, H. H. Yaffe, Opt. Commun. 59, 296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Malitson, I. H.

Nicati, P.-A.

S. Huang, K. Toyama, P.-A. Nicati, L. Thevenaz, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1795, 48 (1993).

K. Toyama, S. Huang, P.-A. Nicati, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), pp. 11–14.

Pine, A. S.

A. S. Pine, Phys. Rev. 185, 1187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ponikvar, D. R.

Radmore, P. M.

P. Bayvel, I. P. Giles, P. M. Radmore, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

S. Huang, K. Toyama, P.-A. Nicati, L. Thevenaz, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1795, 48 (1993).

K. Toyama, S. Huang, P.-A. Nicati, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), pp. 11–14.

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, S. Shibata, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 17, 310 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, S.

N. Shibata, S. Shibata, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 17, 310 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. P.

Tateda, M.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, Appl. Opt. 29, 2219 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 2, 352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thevenaz, L.

S. Huang, K. Toyama, P.-A. Nicati, L. Thevenaz, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1795, 48 (1993).

Toyama, K.

S. Huang, K. Toyama, P.-A. Nicati, L. Thevenaz, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1795, 48 (1993).

K. Toyama, S. Huang, P.-A. Nicati, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), pp. 11–14.

Trach, R. W.

R. W. Trach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, Electron. Lett. 22, 1011 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. Dienes, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, H. H. Yaffe, Opt. Commun. 59, 296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yaffe, H. H.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. Dienes, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, H. H. Yaffe, Opt. Commun. 59, 296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zarinetchi, F.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

N. Shibata, S. Shibata, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 17, 310 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Trach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, Electron. Lett. 22, 1011 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 718 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun.

D. Cotter, J. Opt. Commun. 4, 10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

I. Bar-Joseph, A. Dienes, A. A. Friesem, E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, H. H. Yaffe, Opt. Commun. 59, 296 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

P. Bayvel, I. P. Giles, P. M. Radmore, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 2, 352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

A. S. Pine, Phys. Rev. 185, 1187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

S. Huang, K. Toyama, P.-A. Nicati, L. Thevenaz, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1795, 48 (1993).

R. Carrol, C. D. Coccoli, D. Cardarelli, G. T. Coate, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 719, 169 (1986).

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 1st ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), Chap. 9, pp. 263–288.

K. Toyama, S. Huang, P.-A. Nicati, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Associazione Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Italiana, Firenze, Italy, 1993), pp. 11–14.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FSR variation and Brillouin gain curve shift under temperature change.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the Brillouin ring laser. C's, optical-fiber couplers; PM's, phase modulators; PC's, polarization controllers; ×'s, splices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized frequency difference between the pump wave and the first-Stokes wave versus temperature. The normalization is made with respect to the FSR (FSR = 6.737 MHz). (b) Absolute frequency difference between the pump wave and the first-Stokes wave versus temperature. This figure is an expansion of (a) for experimental data falling inside the temperature range between two mode hops.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized pulsing pump threshold versus temperature. The normalization is made with respect to the input pump intensity threshold I p th required to generate the first-Stokes wave inside the ring cavity.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 ( ν p ν s 1 ) d ( ( ν p ν s 1 ) ) d T = 1 N × FSR d ( N × FSR ) d T = 1 L L T 1 n n T .
1 ν B d ( ν B ) d T = 1 ν a ν a T + 1 n n T .
Δ T mode hopping = FSR N × FSR ( 1 ν B ν B T + 1 n n T + 1 L L T ) FSR ν B ( 1 ν B ν B T + 1 n n T + 1 L L T ) .

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